Hyperventilation as Diagnostic Stress Test for Variant Angina and Cardiomyopathy: Cardiovascular Responses, Likely Triggering Mechanisms and Psychophysiological Implications

  • S. A. Mortensen
  • H. Nielsen
  • Paul Grossman
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 114)


The recognition that coronary artery spasm (CAS) is an important pathogenic factor in evolving myocardial ischemia has generated new possibilities for selective and effective antianginal treatment (Maseri et al., 1978; Severi et al., 1980; Fischer, Hansen and Sandoe, 1978). Prinzmetal’s variant angina (PVA) (Prinzmetal et al., 1959) is characterized by attacks of chest pain at rest, often in the early morning hours, and most typically associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) signs of transmural myocardial ischemia. The CAS in PVA develops upon a wide spectrum of coronary artery lesions from normal or nearly normal arteries to severe coronary artery disease with involvement of two to three of the main vessels (Severi et al., 1980; Bertrand et al., 1979). However, the clinical picture may be atypical, with manifestations of arrhythmias or syncopes obscuring and delaying the diagnosis of CAS in those subjects with only moderate chest discomfort.


Chest Pain Severe Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Spasm Coronary Vasospasm Variant Angina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Mortensen
    • 1
  • H. Nielsen
    • 1
  • Paul Grossman
    • 2
  1. 1.RigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Institute for Stress ResearchFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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