Behavioral Modulation of Cardiovascular and Somatomotor-Cardiovascular Interactions in the Non-Human Primate

  • Bernard T. Engel
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 114)


It is well-known that one can totally denervate the hearts of mammals, including man, and that these hearts are still capable of maintaining the circulation under a wide variety of conditions such as exercise, hypoxia, hypertension or hypotension. Furthermore, a number of primitive, vertebrate species exist in which there is virtually no innervation to the circulation. Thus, it is clear that myogenic and humoral mechanisms can regulate cardiovascular function relatively well. Since this is so, one needs to ask what role the nervous system performs in the regulation and control of the circulation.


Heart Rate Brain Stimulation Cardiovascular Response Operant Conditioning Heart Rate Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ainslie, G. W., and Engel, B. T., 1974, Alteration of classically conditioned heart rate by operant reinforcement in monkeys, J. Com.Physiol. Psychol., 87:373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borst, C., Hollander, A. P., and Bouman, L. N., 1972, Cardiac acceleration elicited by voluntary muscle contractions of minimal duration, J. Appl. Physiol., 32:70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bristow, J. D., Brown, E. B. Jr., Cunningham, D. J. C., Howson, M. G., Petersen, E. S., Pickering, T. G., and Sleight, P., 1971, Effect of bicycling on the baroreflex regulation of pulse interval, Circ. Res., 28:582.Google Scholar
  4. Brooks, D., Fox, P., Lopez, R., and Sleight, P., 1978, The effect of mental arithmetic on blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity in man, Proc. Physiol. Soc, 280:75P.Google Scholar
  5. Clemens, W. J., and Shattock, R. J., 1979, Voluntary heart rate control during static muscular effort, Psychophysiology, 16:327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eldridge, F. L., Millhorn, D. E., and Waldrop, T. G., 1981, Exercise hyperpnea and locomotion: parallel activation from the hypothalamus, Science, 211:844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engel, B. T., 1974, Electroencephalographic and blood pressure correlates of operantly conditioned heart rate in the restrained monkey, Pavlov J. Biol. Sci., 9:222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Engel, B. T., 1980 Somatic mediation of heart rate: a physiological analysis, in: “Biofeedback and Self-Regulation”, N. Birbaumer and H. D. Kimmel, eds., Lawrence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  9. Engel, B. T., and Gottlieb, S. H., 1970, Differential operant conditioning of heart rate in the restrained monkey, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 73:217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Engel, B. T., Gottlieb, S. H., and Hayhurst, V., 1976, Tonic and phasic relationships between heart rate and somato-motor activity in monkeys, Psychophysiology, 13:288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Engel, B. T., and Joseph, J., 1982, Attenuation of baroreflexes during operant cardiac conditioning, Psychophysiology, 19:609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Engel, B. T., and Schneiderman, N., 1984, Operant conditioning and the modulation of cardiovascular function, Annu. Rev. Physiol., 46:199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freyschuss, U., 1970, Elicitation of heart rate and blood pressure increase on muscle contraction, J. Appl. Physiol., 28:758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Galosy, R. A., Clarke, L. K., Vasko, M. R., and Crawfor, I. L., 1980, Neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of cardiovascular regulation and stress, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 5:137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldstein, D. S., Harris, and Brady, J. V., 1977, Baroreflex sensitivity during operant blood pressure conditioning, Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 2:127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldstein, D. S., Ross, R. S., and Brady, J. V., 1977, Biofeedback heart rate training during exercise, Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 2:107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goodwin, W. M., McCloskey, D. I., and Mitchell, J. H., 1972, Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to changes in central command during I isometric exercise at constant muscle tension, J. Physiol., 226:173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hobbs, S. F., 1982, Central command during exercise: parallel activation of the cardiovascular and motor systems by descending command signals, in: “Circulation, Neurobiology and Behavior”, O. A. Smith, R. A. Galosy and S. M. Weiss, eds., Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Joseph, J. A., and Engel, B. T., 1981, Instrumental control of cardio- acceleration induced by central electrical stimulation, Science, 214:341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Perski, A., and Engel, B. T., 1980, The role of behavioral conditioning in the cardiovascular adjustments to exercise, Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 5:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Petro, J. K., Hollander, A. P., and Bouman, L. N., 1970, Instantaneous cardiac acceleration in man induced by a voluntary muscle contraction, J. Appl. Physiol., 29:794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Randall, W. C., ed., 1977, “Neural Regulation of the Heart”, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Schneiderman, N., 1983, Behavior, autonomic function and animal models of cardiovascular pathology, in: “Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease” T. M. Dembroski, and T. H. Schmidt,Google Scholar
  24. Smith, O. A., Galosy, R. A., and Weiss, S. M., eds., 1982, “Circulation, Neurobiology and Behavior”, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Wurster, R. D., 1977, Spinal sympathetic control of the heart, in: “Neural Regulation of the Heart”, W. C. Randall, ed., Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard T. Engel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Gerontology Research Center (Baltimore), National Institute on Aging, PHS, US Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Baltimore City HospitalBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations