Fine Structure of Mass Spectrum of Sodium Clusters: Giant-Atom Concept

  • Susumu Saito
  • Shuhei Ohnishi


We propose a giant-atom cluster model for sodium clusters, which explains the fine structure of the mass spectra of sodium clusters, that is, the non-shell-closing magic numbers. The giant-atom concept is another aspect of the shell model for alkali-metal clusters. A typical example of the giant atom is Na2, which can be regarded as a giant rare-gas atom because it has a shell-closing electronic structure, (Is)2, in the shell model. An icosahedron of this giant rare-gas atom, (Na2)13, is expected to be stable and corresponds well to the non-shell-closing magic number, 26, in the mass spectrum of sodium clusters. Another example is a giant alkali-metal atom, Na19, which has a spherical core and one s-electron, and the dimer (Na12)2 explains the peak at 38. Some other examples are also enumerated and found to coincide to the mass spectrum of sodium clusters. This fact supports that the reaction of sodium clusters is analogous to that of ordinary atoms, since the cluster reaction at the adiabatic expansion of sodium gas rules the relative abundances of clusters.


Shell Model Magic Number Electronic Energy Level Sodium Cluster Spherical Core 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    O. Echt, K. Sattler, and E. Recknagel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1121 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. S. Martins, J. Buttet, and R. Car, Phys. Rev. B 31, 1804 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. K. Rao and P. Jena, Phys. Rev. B 32, 2058 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Pacchioni and J. Koutecky, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 3301 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Raghavachari, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 5672 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Saito, S. Ohnishi, C. Satoko, and S. Sugano, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 55, 1791 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. D. Knight, K. Clemenger, W. A. de Heer, W. A. Saunders, M. Y. Chou, and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2141 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. Katakuse, T. Ichihara, Y. Fujita, T. Matsuo, T. Sakurai, and H. Matsuda, Int. J. Mass Spect. and Ion Processes 67, 229 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Y. Chou, A. Cleland, and M. L. Cohen, Solid State Commun. 52, 645 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Ishii, S. Ohnishi, and S. Sugano, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5271 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. R. Fedfern and R. C. Chany, Phys. Rev. B 32, 5023 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. D. Knight, W. A. de Heer, K. Clemenger, and W. A. Saunders, Solid State Commun. 53, 445 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Ekardt, Phys. Rev. B 29, 1558 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. A. Harris, R. S. Kidwell, and J. A. Northby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2390 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. R. Hoare, Adv. Chem. Phys. 40, 49 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, “Quantum Mechanics,” Pergamon Press, Oxford (1977).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. G. Meyer and J. H. D. Jensen, “Elementary Theory of Nuclear Shell Structure,” John Wiley and Sons (1955).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. B. Hopkins, P. R. R. Langridge-Smith, M. D. Morse, and R. E. Smalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1627 (1983).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Clemenger, Phys. Rev. B 32, 1359 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Bernholc and J. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 33, 7395 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Satoko (private communication).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Inoshita, S. Ohnishi, and A. Oshiyama, to be published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 57.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Watanabe, “The Physics and Fabrication of Microstructures and Microdevices,” ed. M. J. Kelley and C. Weisbuch, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (1986).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Watanabe and T. Inoshita, Optoelectronics: Devices and Technologies, 1, 33 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Saito
    • 1
  • Shuhei Ohnishi
    • 1
  1. 1.NEC Fundamental Research LaboratoriesMiyazaki, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 213Japan

Personalised recommendations