Autoaggressive T Lymphocyte in Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System: Interaction of Autoimmune T Cells with Astroglia
Immunological autoaggression seems to play a much more important role in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system than commonly assumed. As an example chronic viral infection can be associated with T cell mediated reactions against myelin components, as recently demonstrated for measles encephalitis (Johnson et al., 1984). Then, neoplasia of the nervous system is often associated with immune infiltrates, which at least in part may include autoimmune response components (Wilkstrand & Bigner, 1980). Even more important, however, may be the cellular autoimmune responses suspected to dominate the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the main demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is completely abscure at present, several different lines of evidence have been put forward supporting an autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (Waksman, 1983). These include the occurrence of oligoclonal immunoglobulin bands in MS cerebrospinal fluid; imbalances in the distribution of T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood; abnormal reactivity of natural killer cells; occurrence of myelin-specific lymphocytes, and a genetic linkage disequilibrium between the susceptibility to MS and certain haplotypes of the HLA complex (for review McFarlin & McFarland, 1982). The most convincing argument for the participation of autoimmune reactions in the pathogenesis of MS is, however, the histological appearance of the intracerebral MS lesion. The MS plaque is characterized by three paramount changes: mononuclear infiltrates typically arranged around blood vessels, but also disseminating into the rest of the parenchyme; activation of glial elements, predominantly astrocytes; and destruction of myelin forming elements (Lassmann, 1983).
KeywordsMultiple Sclerosis Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Multiple Sclerosis Plaque Central Nervous System Parenchyme
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