Advertisement

Growth Pattern of Pancreatic Islets in Animals

  • Claes Hellerström
  • Ingemar Swenne

Abstract

Since the first edition of The Diabetic Pancreas, new facts and observations relevant to islet growth have accumulated rapidly in the literature. Most of this concerns the B cell, but much new information has also been obtained on the other types of islet cells.* This progress, no doubt, reflects the more general use of immunocytochemical staining methods for identification of different islet cell types in combination with morphometric methods for quantitation of islet cell volume and weight. In addition, the application of techniques for cell cycle analyses has made possible a more detailed characterization of the various phases of B-cell life cycle. A review of these latter techniques will be given below. Animal experiments have furthermore expanded the knowledge on the effects of nutrients, hormones, and drugs on B-cell replication and they have contributed significant information on changes in islet cell proliferation with age. New animal models for both type I and type II diabetes have evolved and the role of a possible deficiency of B-cell proliferation for the manifestation of these diabetic syndromes has been a matter of much concern. It is the purpose of the present chapter to review and discuss the literature within this broad frame with particular emphasis on data that have appeared since the publication of the first edition in 1977.1

Keywords

Islet Cell Pancreatic Islet Proliferative Compartment Diabetic Syndrome Islet Cell Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hellerström, C.: In: The Diabetic Pancreas. Edited by B. W. Volk and K. F. Wellmann. Plenum Press, New York, 1977, p. 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Orci, L., Baetens, D., Ravazzola, M., Stefan, Y., and Malaisse-Lagae, F.: Life Sci., 19:1811, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Orci, L., and Perrelet, A.: In: Glucagon. Edited by R. H. Unger and L. Orci. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1981, p. 3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schauder, P., and Frerichs, H.: Diabetologia, 11:301, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Green, I. C., and Taylor, K. W.: J. Endocrinol, 54:317, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beekman, J., Holze, S., Lenzen, S., and Panten, U.: Acta Diabetol Lat, 18:51, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hinegardner, R. T.: Anal. Biochem., 39:197, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Swenne, I., Bone, A. J., Howell, S. L., and Hellerström, C.: Diabetes, 29:686, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haugwitz, G. M.: Thesis, Ulm, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pipeleers, D. G., and Pipeleers-Marichal, M. A.: Diabetologia, 20:654, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van de Winkel, M., Maes, E., and Pipeleers, D.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 107:525, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van de Winkel, M., and Pipeleers, D.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 114:835, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nielsen, D. A., Lernmark A., Berelowitz, M., Bloom, G. D., and Steiner, D. F.: Diabetes, 31:299, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rabinovitch, A., Rüssel, T., Shienvold, F., Noel, J., Files, N., Patel, Y., and Ingram, M.:Diabetes, 31:939, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weibel, E. R., and Holender, R. P.: In: Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy. Edited by M. A. Hayat. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, Princeton, N.J., 1973.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Logothetopoulos, J.: In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 7, Vol. 1. Edited by D. F. Steiner and N. Freinkel. American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C., 1972, p. 67.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Swenne, I.: Thesis, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Swenne, I.: In: Methods in Diabetes Research, Part B, Vol. 1. Edited by S. L. Pohl and J. Lamer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984, p. 175.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Howard, A., and Pelc, S. R.: Heredity, (Suppl. 6):261, 1953.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Quastler, H., and Sherman, F. G.: Exp. Cell Res., 17:420, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bunnag, S. C.: Diabetes, 15:480, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swenne, I.: Diabetes, 31:754, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Swenne, I.: Diabetes, 32:14, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hellerström, C., Lewis, N., Borg, H., Johnson, R., and Freinkel, N.: Diabetes, 28:769, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dudek, R. W., Hellerström, C., Lewis, N. J., Johnson, R., and Freinkel, N.: Diabetes, 29:15, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Skoog, L., and Nordenskjöld, B.: Eur. J. Biochem., 19:81, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wright, N. A., and Appleton, D. R.: Cell Tissue Kinet., 13:643, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Swenne, I., and Eriksson, U.: Diabetologia, 23:525, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pedersen, J.: The Pregnant Diabetic and Her Newborn, 2nd Ed. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1977.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aynsley-Green, A.: In: Carbohydrate Metabolism and Its Disorders. Edited by P. J. Randle, D. F. Steiner, and W. J. Whelan. Academic Press, New York, 1981, p. 181.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freie, H. M. P., Pasma, A., and Bouman, P. R.: Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen), 80:657, 1975.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McEvoy, R. C., and Madson, K. L.: Biol. Neonate, 38:248, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eriksson, U., and Swenne, I.: Biol Neonate, 42:239, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pictet, R., and Rutter, W. J.: In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 7, Vol. 1. Edited by D. F. Steiner and N. Freinkel. American Physiological Society, Washington, D. C., 1972, p. 25.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cantenys, D., Portha, B., Dutrillaux, M. C., Hollande, E., Roze, C., and Picon, L.: Virchows Arch. B, 35:109, 1981.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dutrillaux, M. C, Portha, B., Roze, C., and Hollande, E.: Virchows Arch. B, 39:173, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Portha, B., Levacher, C., Picon, L., and Rosselin, G.: Diabetes, 23:889, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hultquist, G. T., Karisson, U., and Hallner, A. C: Exp. Pathol, 17:44, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fujii, S.: Arch. Histol Jpn., 42:467, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schweisthal, M. R., Frost, C. C., and Brinn, J. E.: Acta Diabetol Lat., 13:30, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alumets, J., Sundler, F., and Häkanson, R.: Cell Tissue Res., 185:465, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Larsson, L.-L: Histochemistry, 54:133, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dupouy, J. P., Chatelain, A., and Dubois, M. P.: Cell Tissue Res., 231:463, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pictet, R., Clark, W. R., Renold, A. E., Williams, R. H., and Rutter, W. J.: J. Cell Biol, 39:105A, 1968.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sundler, F., Häkanson, R., and Larsson, L.-L: Cell Tissue Res., 178:303, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Madson, K. L.: Biol Neonate, 38:255, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eriksson, U., Andersson, A., Efendic, S., Eide, R., and Hellerström, C.: Acta Endocrinol (Copenhagen), 94:354, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dubreuil, G., and Anderodias, J.: C. R. Soc. Biol, 83:1490, 1920.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Warren, S., LeCompte, P. M., and Legg, M. A.: The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1966.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hultquist, G. T., and Olding, L. B.: Acta Endocrinol (Copenhagen), 97(Suppl. 241):1, 1981.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pedersen, J.: Acta Endocrinol (Copenhagen), 16:330, 1954.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Davis, M. E., Fugo, N. W., and Lawrence, K. G.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med, 66:638, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Miller, H. C: Endocrinology, 40:251, 1947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shipley, E. G., and Danley, K. S.: Am. J. Physiol, 150:84, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Levi, J. E., and Weinberg, T.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 72:658, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sinden, J. A., and Longwell, B. B.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 70:607, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ferret, P., Lindan, O., and Morgans, M. E.: J. Endocrinol., 7:100, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hultquist, G. T.: Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand, 27:695, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lindan, O., and Morgans, M. E.: J. Endocrinol., 6:463, 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bartelheimer, H., and Kloos, K.: Z. Gesamte Exp. Med, 119:246, 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nerenberger, S. T.: Arch. Pathol., 58:236, 1954.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kim, J. N., Runge, W., Wells, L. J., and Lazarow, A.: Diabetes, 9:396, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lawrence, A. M., and Contopoulos, A. N.: Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen), 33:175, 1960.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Love, E. J., Kinch, R. A. H., and Stevenson, J. A. F.: Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 80:536, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Koskenoja, M.: Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl., 68:1, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Foglia, V. G., Chieri, R. A., and Cattaneo de Peralta Ramos, M.: Horm. Metab. Res., 2:76, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Angervall, L.: Acta Endocrinol. (Copenhagen), 31(Suppl. 44): 1, 1959.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Solomon, F.: Diabetes, 8:45, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lazarow, A., Kim, J. N., and Wells, L. J.: Diabetes, 9:114, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Baranov, V. G., and Sokoloverova, L M.: Opusc. Med, 13: 189, 1968.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pitkin, R. M., Plank, C. J., and Filer, L. J., Jr.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 138:163, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Friedgood, C. E., and Miller, A. A.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 59:61, 1945.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rishi, S., Golob, E., and Becker, K. L.: Fed Proc., 28:708, 1969.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Golob, E. K., Rishi, S., Becker, K. L., and Moore, C.: Metabolism, 19:1014, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sybulski, S., and Maughan, G. B.: Endocrinology, 89:1537, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fujimoto, L, and Fujii, T.: Endocrinol. Jpn. 21:101, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pitkin, R. M., and Van Orden, D. E.: Endocrinology, 94:1247, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Aerts, L., and Van Assche, F. A.: J. Endocrinol, 73:339, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kervran, A., Guillaume, M., and Jost, A.: Diabetologia, 15:387, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    de Gasparo, M., and Milner, R. D. G.: Diabetologia, 19:54, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Golob, E. K., Rishi, S., Becker, K. L., Moore, C., and Shah, N.: Diabetes, 19:610, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dixit, P. K., Lowe, L P., Heggestad, C. B., and Lazarow, A.: Diabetes, 13:71, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Frye, B. E.:J Morphol, 101:325, 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kim, J. N., Runge, W., Wells, L. J., and Lazarow, A.: Anat. Ree., 138:239, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Eriksson, U.: Thesis, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1981.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tydén, O., Berne, C, and Eriksson, U.: Pediatr. Res., 14:1192, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Eriksson, U., Hellerström, C., and Andersson, A.: Diabetes Metab., 7:243, 1981.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Eriksson, U., Dahlström, E., Larsson, K. S., and Hellerström, C.: Diabetes, 31:1, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kim, Y. S., Jatoi, L, and Kim, Y.: Diabetologia, 18:407, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chez, R. A.: Diabetes Care, 3:435, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mintz, D. H., Chez, R. A., and Hutchinson, D. L.: J. Clin. Invest., 51:837, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tejning, S.: Acta Med Scand, 128(Suppl. 198):1, 1947.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wissler, R. W., Findley, J. W., and Frazier, L. E.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med, 71:308, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Coleman, D., and Hummel, K. P.: Isr. J. Med Sci., 11:708, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Denffer, H. von: Histochemie, 21:338, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Davidson, M. B.: Metabolism, 28:688, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    DeFronzo, R. A.: Diabetes Care, 4:493, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Olefsky, J. M., and Reaven, G. M.: Endocrinology, 96:1486, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gold, G., Karoly, K., Freeman, C., and Adelman, R. C.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 73:1003, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Reaven, E. P., Gold, G., and Reaven, G. M.: J. Clin. Invest, 64:591, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Remade, C., Hauser, N., Jeanjean, M., and Gommers, A.: Exp. Gerontol, 12:207, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Remade, C., DeClercq, L., Delaère, P., Many, M.-C, and Gommers, A.: Cell Tissue Res., 207:429, 1980.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    DeClercq, L., Schmidt, G., Delaère, P., and Remade, C: Cell Biol Int. Rep. 4:817, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    McEvoy, R. C: Diabetes, 30:813, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hdlman, B.: Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand, 47:35, 1959.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gelfant, S., and Smith, J. G.: Science, 178:357, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hellerström, C: Acta Soc. Med. Ups., 68:17, 1963.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Green, J. C., El Seifi, S., Perrin, D., and Howell, S. L.: J. Endocrinol, 88:219, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Petersson, B., and Hellman, B.: Metabolism, 11:342, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Klöppel, G., Drenck, C. P., Habich, K., Bommer, G., and Heitz, P. U.: Diabetologia, 25:171, 1983.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chick, W. L., Lauris, V., Flewelling, J. H., Andrews, K. A., and Woodruff, J. M.: Endocrinology, 92:212, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chick, W. L.: Diabetes, 22:687, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Andersson, A.: Endocrinology, 96:1051, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    King, D. L., and Chick, W. L.: Endocrinology, 99:1003, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    King, D. L., Chick, W. L., and Kitchen, K. C.: In: Pancreatic Beta Cell Culture. Edited by E. von Wasielewski and W. L. Chick. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1977, p. 109.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    King, D. L., Kitchen, D. C., and Chick, W. L.: Endocrinology, 103:1321, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    de Gasparo, M. Milner, G. R., Norris, P. D., and Milner, R. D. G.: J. Endocrinol, 77:241, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ono, J., Takaki, R., Okano, H., and Fukama, M.: In Vitro, 15:95, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kasai, M., Ikeuchi, M., Kanazawa, Y., and Kosaka, K.: Biomed. Res., 3:688, 1982.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kaung, H. L. C.: Embryol Exp. Morphol, 74:303, 1983.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rabinovitch, A., Blondel, B., Murray, T., and Mintz, D.: J. Clin. Invest., 66:1065, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Swenne, I.: Biosci. Rep., 2:867, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hellerström, C., and Brolin, S. E.: In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, New Series, Vol. 32/2. Edited by A. Hasselblatt and F. von Bruchhausen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975, p. 57.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pastan, I. H., Johnson, G. S., and Anderson, W. B.: Annu. Rev. Biochem., 44:491, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rabinovitch, A., Quigley, C., and Rechler, M.: Diabetes, 32:307, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McEvoy, R. C: Horm. Metab. Res., 13:5, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rabinovitch, A., Quigley, C., Russel, T., Patel, Y., and Mintz, D.: Diabetes, 31:160, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Höiriis Nielsen, J.: Endocrinology, 110:600, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Parsons, J. A., Harfel, M. A., Hegre, O. D., and McEvoy, R. C: Diabetes, 32:67, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cornblath, M., Parker, M. L., Reisner, S. H., Forbes, A. E., and Daughaday, W. H.: Clin. Endocrinol Metab., 25:209, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Luft, R., Cerasi, E., and Hamberger, C. A.: Acta Endocrinol (Copenhagen), 45:593, 1967.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Aragona, C., and Friesen, H. G.: In: Endocrinology, Vol. 3. Edited by L. J. DeGroot, G. F. Cahill, W. D. Odell, L. Martini, J. T. Potts, D. H. Nelson, E. Steinberger, and A. I. Winegrad. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979, p. 1613.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    McEvoy, R. C., Lazarow, A., and Hegre, O. D.: Differentiation, 3:69, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    McEvoy, R. C., Hegre, O. D., and Lazarow, A.: Differentiation, 6:17, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Hegre, O. D.: Differentiation, 6:105, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    McEvoy, R. C: Am. J. Anat., 157:319, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    McEvoy, R. C, Leung, P. E., and Goggins, J. A.: Endocrinology, 108:2277, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Clark, A., Bown, E., King, T., Vanhegan, R. J., and Turner, R. C.: Diabetes, 31:319, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sir El-Khatim, M.: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hii, C. S. T., and Howell, S. L.: Diabetes, 33:291, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McEvoy, R. C: Differentiation, 17:105, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Leung, P. E.: Endocrinology, 111:1568, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Swenne, I., and Bone, A. J.: Cell Biol Int. Rep., 5:647, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Pace, C. S., and Clements, R. S.: Diabetes, 30:621, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Fong, H. K. W., Chick, W. L., and Sato, G. H.: Diabetes, 30:1022, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bonner-Weir, S., Trent, D. F., and Weir, G. C.: J. Clin. Invest., 71:1544, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Boquist, L.: Virchows Arch. B, 1:169, 1968.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Jacob, S.: Cell Tissue Res., 181:277, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Johnson, D. D.: Endocrinology, 47:393, 1950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ziegler, B., Noack, S., Diaz-Alonso, J. M., and Hahn, H. J.: Diabetologia, 25:160, 1983.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Hegre, O. D.: Diabetes, 26:1140, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hellman, B., and Petersson, B.: Endocrinology, 72:238, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Orci, L., Baetens, D., Rufener, C., Amherdt, M., Ravazzola, M., Studer, P., Malaisse-Lagae, F., and Unger, R. H.: Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA, 73:1338, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Coleman, D. L.: Diabetologia, 14:141, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Leiter, E. H., Coleman, D. L., and Hummel, K. P.: Diabetes, 30:1029, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Leiter, E. H.: Diabetes, 30:1035, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Coleman, D. L., and Hummel, K. P.: Diabetologia, 9:287, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Coleman, D. L., Leiter, E. H., and Schwiger, R. W.: Diabetes, 31:830, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Leiter, E. H., Coleman, D. L., Eisenstein, A. B., and Strack, L: Metabolism, 30:554, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Leiter, E. H., Coleman, D. L., Ingram, D. K., and Reynolds, M. A.: J. Nutr., 113:184, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Swenne, L, and Andersson, A.: Diabetologia, 25:197, 1983.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Leiter, E. H., Coleman, D. L., Eisenstein, A. B., and Strack, L: Diabetologia, 19:58, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Baetens, D., Stefan, Y., Ravazzola, M., Malaisse-Lagae, F., Coleman, D. L., and Orci, L.: Diabetes, 27:1, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Leiter, E. H., Gapp, D. A., Eppig, J. J., and Coleman, D. L.: Diabetologia, 17:297, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dolais-Kitabgi, J., Le Marchand-Brustel, Y., and Freychet, P.: Diabetologia, 17:257, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gingerich, R. L., Gersell, D. J., Greider, M. H., Finke, E. H., and Lacy, P. E.: Metabolism, 27:1526, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Petersson, B., Eide, R., Efendic, S., Hökfelt, T., Johansson, O., Luft, R., Cerasi, E., and Hellerström, C.: Diabetologia, 13:463, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lazarow, A., Wells, L. J., Carpenter, A. M., Hegre, O. D., Leonard, R. J., and McEvoy, R. C.: Diabetes, 22:827, 1973.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hegre, O. D., Leonard, R. J., and Lazarow, A.: Anat. Ree., 185:209, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hegre, O. D., McEvoy, R. C., and Schmitt, R. V.: In: Pancreatic Beta Cell Culture. Edited by E. von Wasielewski and W. L. Chick. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1977, p. 71.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    McEvoy, R. C., Schmitt, R. V., and Hegre, O. D.: Diabetes, 27:982, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Hegre, O. D.: Diabetes, 27:988, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    McEvoy, R. C, and Hegre, O. D.: Diabetes, 28:141, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mullen, Y. S., Clark, W. R., Molnar, I. G., and Brown, J.: Science, 195:68, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brown, J., Heininger, D., Kuret, J., and Mullen, Y.: Diabetes, 30:9, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hoffman, L., Mandel, T. E., and Carter, W.: Diabetes, 31:826, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Andersson, A., Eriksson, U., Petersson, B., Reibring, L., and Swenne, I.: Diabetologia, 20:237, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Andersson, A.: Diabetologia, 25:269, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Westermark, P., and Wilander, E.: Diabetologia, 15:417, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claes Hellerström
    • 1
  • Ingemar Swenne
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Cell BiologyUniversity of UppsalaUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations