Dynamic Psychotherapy

  • Morris Eagle
  • David Wolitzky


The terms “dynamic psychotherapy” and “psychodynamic psychotherapy” have been used interchangeably with psychoanalytic psychotherapy or psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. It is useful to remember that Freud borrowed the term “psychodynamic” from physics, where “dynamics” refers to the interaction of forces as in thermodynamics or aerodynamics and is intended to convey the idea of an interplay of forces in the mind, particularly conflicting forces.1 Indeed, Kris (1947), an influential psychoanalytic theorist, defined psychoanalysis as that discipline that views behavior from the point of view of inner conflict. Thus, one of the basic questions a traditional psychodynamic psychotherapist would pose to himself or herself in clinical situations would be: with which inner core conflict is this patient struggling? As we shall see, in some recent psychoanalytic developments, such as self-psychology, there appears to be a relative de-emphasis on inner conflicts and corresponding increased emphasis on other factors (such as selfdefects and developmental arrests). However, the emphasis of traditional psychodynamic theory has been on inner conflict.


Therapeutic Alliance Free Association Psychoanalytic Theory Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Standard Edition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, F., & French, T. M. (1946). Psychoanalytic therapy: Principles and applications. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brenner, C. (1979). Working alliance, therapeutic alliance and transference. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 27 (Suppl.), 137–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenner, C. (1982). The mind in conflict. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  4. Christensen, J. C., Lane, T. W., & Strupp, H. H. (1987). Pre-therapy interpersonal relations and introject as reflected in the therapeutic process. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR), Ulm, West Germany.Google Scholar
  5. Eagle, M. (1984). Recent developments in psychoanalysis: A critical evaluation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Eagle, M., & Wolitzky, D. L. (1992). Psychoanalytic theories of psychotherapy. In D. K. Freedheim (Ed.), History of psychotherapy: A century of change (pp. 109–158). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fairbairn, W. R. D. (1952). Psychoanalytic studies of the personality. London: Tavistock Publications & Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  8. Freud, S. (1982–1893). A case of successful treatment by hypnotism. Standard Edition (Vol. 2, pp. 115–128). London: Hogarth Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. Freud, S. (1910). The future prospects of psychoanalytic therapy. Standard Edition (Vol. 11, pp. 139–151). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  10. Freud, S. (1912a). The dynamics of transference. Standard Edition (Vol. 12, pp. 97–108). London: Hogarth Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1912b). Recommendations to physicians practising psychoanalysis. Standard Edition (Vol. 12, pp. 109–120). London: Hogarth Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  12. Freud, S. (1914). On the history of the psychoanalytic movement. Standard Edition Vol. 14, pp. 7–66). London: Hogarth Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  13. Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition (Vol. 19, pp. 3–59). London: Hogarth Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  14. Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety. Standard Edition (Vol. 10, pp. 87–174). London: Hogarth Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  15. Freud, S. (1933). The dissection of the psychical personality. Standard Edition (Vol. 17, pp. 57–81). London: Hogarth Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. Gill, M. M. (1982). Analysis of transference. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  17. Greenberg, J. R., & Mitchell, S. A. (1983). Object relations in psychoanalytic theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Greenson, R. R. (1965). The working alliance and the transference neurosis. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 34, 155–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartley, D., & Strupp, H. (1983). The therapeutic alliance: Its relationship to outcome in brief psychotherapy. In J. Masling (Ed.), Empirical studies of psychoanalytic theory (Vol. I, pp. 1–27. Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Henry, W. P., Schacht, T. E., & Strupp, H.H. (1986). Structural analysis of social behavior: Application to a study of interpersonal process in differential psychotherapeutic outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kohut, H. (1984). How does analysis cure? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kris, E. (1947). The nature of psychoanalytic propositions and their validation. In S. Hook & M. R. Korwitz (Eds.), Freedom and experience: Essays presented to Horace Kalle (pp. 239–259). New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Luborsky, L. (1976). Helping alliances in psychotherapy: The groundwork for a study of their relationship to its outcome. In J. Claghorn (Ed.), Successful psychotherapy (pp. 92–116). New York: Brunner/ Mazel.Google Scholar
  26. Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A manual for supportive-expressive treatment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Luborsky, L., & Crist-Christoph, P. (1990). Understanding transference: The CCRT method. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Alexander, L., Margolis, M., & Cohen, M. (1983). Two helping alliance methods for predicting outcomes of psychotherapy: A counting signs versus a global rating method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 17, 480–492.Google Scholar
  29. Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Mintz, J., & Auerbach, A. (1988). Who will benefit from psychotherapy?: Predicting therapeutic outcome. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  30. Malan, D. (1963). A study of brief psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  31. Malan, D. (1976). The frontier of brief psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mischel, T. (1963). Psychology and explanations of human behavior. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 23, 578–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mischel, T. (1966). Pragmatic aspects of explanation. Philosophy of Science, 33, 40–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Modell, A. (1983). Self preservation and the preservation of the self: An overview of the more recent knowledge of the narcissistic personality. Paper given at Symposium on “Narcissism, masochism, and the sense of guilt in relation to the therapeutic process,” Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, California, May 14–15, 1983.Google Scholar
  35. Morgan, R., Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Curtis, H., & Solomon, J. (1982). Predicting the outcomes of psychotherapy by the Penn Helping Alliance rating method. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  37. Schmidl, F. (1955). The problem of scientific validation in psychoanalytic interpretation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 36, 105–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Silberschatz, G., Fretter, P. B., & Curtis, J. T. (1986). How do interpretations influence the process of psychotherapy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(5), 646–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Silberschatz, G., Curtis, J. T., & Nathans, S. (1989). Using the patient’s plan to assess progress in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 26(1), 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Spence, D. P. (1982). Narrative truth and historical truth. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  41. Strupp, H. H. (1986). Research, practice, and public policy (How to avoid dead ends). American Psychologist, 41(2), 120–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Strupp, H. H. (1989). Can the practitioner learn from the researcher? American Psychologist, 44(4), 717–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Strupp, H. H., & Binder, J. L. (1984). Psychotherapy in a new key: A guide to time-limited dynamic psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  44. Strupp, H. H., Butler, S. F., & Rosser, C. L. (1988). Training in psychodynamic therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 689–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Waelder, R. (1960). Basic theory of psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  46. Weiss, J. (1990). Unconscious mental functioning. Scientific American, 262(3), 103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weiss, J., Sampson, H., & the Mount Zion Psychotherapy Research Group. (1986). The psychoanalytic process: Theory, clinical observation and empirical research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Winnicott, D. W. (1958). Collected papers: Through paediatrics to psychoanalysis. London: Tavistock Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  49. Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The maturational processes and the facilitating environment. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1987.Google Scholar
  50. Zetzel, E. (1966). The analytic situation. In R. E. Litman (Ed.), Psychoanalysis in the Americans (pp. 86–106). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morris Eagle
    • 1
  • David Wolitzky
    • 2
  1. 1.The Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations