• Nadine J. Kaslow
  • Karla J. Doepke
  • Gary R. Racusin


Cases of despondency and depression in children and adolescents were reported as early as the seventeenth century and reports on melancholia in youth began to appear by the middle of the nineteenth century Prior to the 1970s, however, little attention was paid to the phenomenon of depression in children and adolescents. Such paucity of interest can be attributed to suppositions of the era’s prevailing classical psychoanalytic theory, which precluded childhood depression due to children’s immature superego development and lack of a stable self-concept. Other theorists postulated that children could not tolerate prolonged feelings of dysphoria and thus “masked” their depressive symptoms with myriad emotional and behavioral symptoms. The turning point in the mental health field occurred at the Fourth Congress of the Union of European Pedopsychiatrists held in 1970 in Stockholm, which focused on childhood and adolescent depressive states. These European pedopsychiatrists concluded that depression was a mental disorder found in a significant percentage of troubled children and adolescents and as such deserved study. Increased attention to childhood and adolescent depression in the United States dates back to Schulterbrandt and Raskin’s (1977) book, Depression in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment and Conceptual Models, which detailed findings from a conference sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health. This group of clinicians and researchers concurred with the European group’s conclusion that depression in children and adolescents exists.


Depressive Symptom Adolescent Psychiatry Elementary School Child Adolescent Depression Depressed Mother 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessi, N. E., & Magen, J. (1988), Comorbidity of other psychiatric disturbances in depressed, psychiatrically hospitalized children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1582–1584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allgood-Merten, B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Hops, H. (1990). Sex differences and adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altmann, E. O., & Gotlib, I. H., (1988). The social behavior of depressed children: An observational study. Journal of Child Psychology, 16, 29–44.Google Scholar
  5. Ambrosin, P. (1987). Pharmacotherapy in child and adolescent major depressive therapy disorder. In H. Y. Metzler (Ed.), Psycho-pharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 1247–1254). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition, Revised. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association (1993). DSM-IV draft criteria. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Angold, A. (1988). Childhood and adolescent depression. I. Epidemiological and aetiological aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 601–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumberg, S. H., & Izard, C.E., (1985). Affective and cognitive characteristics of depression in 10- and 11-year old children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 194–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  11. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Warren, M. P. (1989). Biological and social contributions to negative affect in young adolescent girls. Child Development, 60, 40–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke, K. C., Burke, J. D., Regier, D. A., & Rae, D. S. (1990). Age at onset of selected mental disorders in five community populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 511–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burke, P., & Puig-Antich, J. (1990). Psychobiology of childhood depression. In M. Lewis & S.M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 327–339). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, L., Miezitis, S., Friedman, R., & Cole, E. (1980). The effect of two school-based intervention programs on depressive symptoms in preadolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 111–119.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, M., & Spencer, E. K. (1988). Psychopharmacology in child and adolescent psychiatry: A review of the past five years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 269–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlson, G. A., & Garber, J. (1986). Developmental issues in the classification of depression in children. In M. Rutter, C. E. Izard, & P. B. Read (Eds.), Depression in young people (pp. 399–434). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Digdon, N., & Gotlib, I.H. (1985). Developmental considerations in the study of childhood depression. Developmental Reviews, 5, 162–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fine, S., Forth, A., Gilbert, M., & Haley, G. (1991). Group therapy for adolescent depressive disorder: A comparison of social skills and therapeutic support. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fleming, J. E., & Offord, D. R. (1990). Epidemiology of childhood depressive disorders: A critical review. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 571–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gelfand, D. M., & Teti, D. M. (1990). The effects of maternal depression on children. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 329–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gjerde, P. F., Block, J., & Block, J. H. (1988). Depressive symptoms and personality during late adolescence: Gender differences in the externalization-internalization of symptom expression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 475–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hammen, C. (1991). Depression runs in families: The social context of risk and resilience in children of depressed mothers. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  24. Hoier, T. S., & Kerr, M. M. (1988). Extrafamilial information sources in the study of childhood depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 21–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kahn, J. S., Kehle, T. J., Jenson, W. R., & Clarke, E. (1990). Comparison of cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and self-modeling intervention for depression among middle-school students. School Psychology Review, 19, 195–210.Google Scholar
  26. Kashani, J. H., & Sherman, D. D. (1988). Childhood depression: Epidemiology, etiological models, and treatment implications. Integrative Psychiatry, 6, 1–8.Google Scholar
  27. Kaslow, N. J., & Racusin, G. R. (1990). Childhood depression: Current status and future directions. In A. S. Bellack, M. Hersen, & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), International handbook of behavior modification and therapy, (2nd Ed., pp. 649–667). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaslow, N. J., & Rehm, L. P. (1991). Childhood depression. In R. Morris & T. R. Kratochwill (Eds.), The practice of child therapy (2nd ed., pp. 43–75). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kaslow, N. J., & Rehm, L. P., Pollack, S. L., & Siegel, A. W. (1990). Depression and perception of family functioning in children and their parents. American Journal of Family Therapy, 18, 227–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kazdin, A. E. (1988). The diagnosis of childhood disorders: Assessment issues and strategies. Behavioral Assessment, 10, 67–94.Google Scholar
  31. Kazdin, A. E., Sherick, R. B., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Racurello, M. D. (1985). Nonverbal behavior and childhood depression. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 303–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kovacs, M. (1985). The natural history and course of depressive disorders in childhood. Psychiatric Annals, 15, 387–389.Google Scholar
  33. Kovacs, M. (1989). Affective disorders in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 44, 209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kramer, A. D., & Feiguine, R. J. (1981). Clinical effects of amitriptyline in adolescent depression: A pilot study. Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 636–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kutcher, S. P., & Marton, P. (1989). Parameters of adolescent depression: A review. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 895–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Larsson, B., & Melin, L. (1990). Depressive symptoms in Swedish adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewinsohn, P. M., Clarke, G. N., Hops, H., & Andrews, J. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 21, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Marton, P., Korenblum, M., Kutcher, S., Stein, B., Kennedy, B., & Pakes, J. (1989). Personality dysfunction in depressed adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 810–813.Google Scholar
  39. Merikangas, K. R., Prusoff, B. A., & Weissman, M. M. (1988). Parental concordance for affective disorders: Psychopathology in offspring. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 279–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mitchell, J., McCauley, E., Burke, P., Calderon, R., & Schloredt, K. (1989). Psychopathology in parents of depressed children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mullins, L. L., Peterson, L., Wonderlich, S. A., & Reaven, N. M. (1986). The influence of depressive symptomatology in children on the social responses and perception of adults. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Politano, P. M., Nelson, W. M., Evans, H., Sorenson, S., & Zeman, D. (1986). Factor analytic evaluation of differences between Black and Caucasian emotionally disturbed children on the Children’s Depression Inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 8, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Puig-Antich, J., Lukens, E., Davies, M., Goetz, D., Brennan-Quattrock, J., & Today, G. (1985a). Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders I. Interpersonal relationships during the depressive episode. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 500–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Puig-Antich, J., Lukens, E., Davies, M., Goetz, D, Brennan-Quattrock, J., & Today, G. (1985b). Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from an affective episode. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 511–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Puig-Antich, J., Perel, J. M., Lupatkin, W., Chambers, W. J., Tabrizi, M. A., King, J., Goetz, R., Davies, M., and Stiller, R. L. (1987). Imipramine in prepubertal major depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 81–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Puig-Antich, J., Goetz, D., Davies, M., Kaplan, T., Davies, S., Ostrow, L., Asnis, L., Twomey, J., Iyengar, S., & Ryan, N. D. (1989). A controlled family history study of prepubertal major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 406–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Racusin, G. R., & Kaslow, N. J. (1991). Assessment and treatment of childhood depression. In P. A. Keller & S. R. Heyman (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A sourcebook (Vol. 10, pp. 223–243). Sarasota: Professional Resource Exchange.Google Scholar
  48. Rehm, L. P., Kaslow, N. J., & Rabin, A. S. (1987). Cognitive and behavioral targets in a self-control therapy program for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 60–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reynolds, W. M., & Coats, K. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 653–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rosenthal, N. E., Carpenter, C. J., James, S. P., Parry, B. L., Rogers, S. L. B., & Wehr, T. A. (1986). Seasonal affective disorder in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 356–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Schulterbrandt, J. G., & Raskin, A. (Eds.) (1977). Depression in childhood: Diagnosis, treatment, and conceptual models. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  52. Spitz, R. (1946). Anaclitic depression. Psychoanalytic study of the child, 5, 113–117.Google Scholar
  53. Stark, K. (1990). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  54. Stark, K. D., Reynolds, W. M., & Kaslow, N. J. (1987). A comparison of the relative efficacy of self-control therapy and a behavioral problem-solving therapy for depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 91–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Crook, K., & Lewis, K. (1990). Perceived family environments of depressed and anxious children: Child’s and maternal figure’s perspectives. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 527–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Swift, W. J., Andrews, D., & Barklage, N. E. (1986). The relationship between affective disorder and eating disorders: A review of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 290–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Waller, D. A., & Rush, J. (1983). Differentiating primary affective disease, organic affective syndromes, and situational depression on a pediatric service. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 52–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Weiler, E. B., & Weller, R. A. (1991). Mood disorders. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychiatry: A comprehensive textbook (pp. 646–664). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  59. Woolston, J. L., Rosenthal, S. L., Riddle, M. A., Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Zimmerman, L. D. (1989). Childhood comorbidity of anxiety/affective disorders and behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 707–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Worchel, F. E., Nolan, B. E., Willson, V. L., Purser, J. S., Copeland, D. R., & Pfefferbaum, B. (1988). Assessment of depression in children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13, 101–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Worchel, E. E., Hughes, J. N., Hall, B. M., Stanton, S. B., Stanton, S., & Little, V. Z. (1990). Evaluation of subclinical depression in children using self-, peer-, and teacher-report measures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine J. Kaslow
    • 1
  • Karla J. Doepke
    • 1
  • Gary R. Racusin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of MedicineGrady Memorial HospitalAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Connecticut Mental Health CenterYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations