Advertisement

Diagnosis and Classification

  • Ingrid N. Leckliter
  • Joseph D. Matarazzo

Abstract

Almost one third of all individuals who are 18 years or older and live in the United States have experienced, at some time in their lives, an alcohol-abuse, substance-abuse, or mental disorder. In any 1-month period, three of 20 adults living in the United States experience these disorders. When alcohol or substance abuse is excluded from these statistics, the lifetime prevalence for mental disorders is 23%; the 1-month prevalence is 13%. These statistics are reported in the recent National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) survey, which is the largest, population-based survey of the incidence of mental and substance-abuse disorders among individuals 18 years and older who live in the United States (Regier et al., 1990). Some readers may find these statistics even more striking when they consider that the disorders reflected in this survey are severe conditions, such as schizophrenia, organic brain disorders, depression, and incapacitating anxiety The statistics exclude millions of Americans who experience disorders of psychological or psychophysiological function, such as depersonalization disorders, disorders of impulse control (e.g., pathological gambling), chronic pain, Type A behavior, sexual disorders, and those individuals who experience dysfunction associated with life crises (e.g., death of a loved one, divorce, or sexual assault). These statistics do not reflect the incidence of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Nor does their summary here reflect the wide variability of incidence across factors such as geographic region, socioeconomic status, gender, or ethnicity.

Keywords

Mental Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Antisocial Behavior Pathological Gambling Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd Edition, Revised. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1993). DSM-IV draft criteria. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Andreasen, N. C., & Grove, W. M. (1982). The classification of depression: A comparison of traditional and mathematically derived approaches. American journal of Psychiatry, 139, 45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bevan, W. (1991). Contemporary psychology: A tour inside the onion. American Psychologist, 46, 475–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blashfield, R. K. (1984). The classification of psychopathology: Neo-Kraepelinian and quantitative approaches. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cloninger, C. R., Bohman, M., & Sigvardsson, S. (1981). Inheritance of alcohol abuse: Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 861–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gergen, K. J. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Grove, W M., & Andreasen, N. C. (1986). Multivariate statistical analysis in psychopathology. In T. Millon & G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV (pp. 347–362). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Harada, S., Agarwal, D P., Goedde, H. W, Tagaki, S., Ishikawa, B. (1982). Possible protective role against alcoholism for aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme deficiency in Japan. Lancet, 2, 827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heath, A. C., Jardine, R., & Martin, N. G. (1989). Interactive effects of genotype and social environment on alcohol consumption in female twins. Journal of Studies in Alcoholism, 50, 38–48.Google Scholar
  12. Hollon, S. D., Shelton, R. C., & Loosen, P. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 88–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klerman, G. L. (1986). Historical perspectives on contemporary schools of psychopathology. In T. Millon & G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV (pp. 3–18). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Lewis, H. B. (1981). Freud and modern psychology. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  15. Masson, J. M. (1984). The assault on truth. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.Google Scholar
  16. Matarazzo, J. D. (1983). The reliability of psychiatric and psychological diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 3, 103–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meehl, P. E. (1986). Diagnostic taxa as open concepts: Metatheoretical and statistical questions about reliability and construct validity in the grand strategy of nosological revision. In T. Millon & G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV (pp. 215–231). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Millon, T. (1986). On the past and future of the DSM-III: Personal recollections and projections. In T. Millon & G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV (pp. 29–70). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Patterson, G. R. (1982). A social learning approach: Coercive family process (Vol. 3). Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  20. Patterson, G. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patterson, G., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Plomin, R., & Rende, R. (1991). Human behavioral genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 161–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Quay, H. C. (1986). Classification. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed.) (pp. 1–34). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  24. Reed, T. E. (1985). Ethnic differences in alcohol use, abuse, and sensitivity: A review with genetic interpretation. Social Biology, 32, 195–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., et al. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 2511–2518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vaillant, G. E. (1983). The natural history of alcoholism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1991). Therapies for hyperactive children: Comparisons, combinations, and compromises. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 126–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingrid N. Leckliter
    • 1
  • Joseph D. Matarazzo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical PsychologyOregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations