Immunologic and Hematologic Deficiencies of the Hypopituitary Dwarf Mouse

  • Rene J. Duquesnoy
  • Grete M. Pedersen


The immunodeficiency syndrome of the dwarf mouse has provided a model for studying the relationship between the endocrine and the lymphoid systems. Two autosomal recessive dwarf mutants, the Snell-Bagg (SB) dwarf (genetic symbol dw) and the Ames dwarf (genetic symbol df), have been extensively studied. Dwarf mice are indistinguishable from normal siblings during the first week of postnatal life. Thereafter, dwarf mice show reduced body size, juvenile hair growth patterns, and low muscular activity. Both types of dwarf mice exhibit morphologically and physiologically similar characteristics but they derive from entirely different genetic backgrounds.


Growth Hormone Adenylate Cyclase Spleen Cell Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Dwarf Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arrenbrecht, S., 1974, Specific binding of growth hormone to thymocytes, Nature (London) 252: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baroni, C. D., 1967, Thymus, peripheral lymphoid tissues and immunological responsiveness of the pituitary dwarf mouse, Experientia 23: 282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baroni, C. D., and Doria, G., 1973, Hormones and lymphoid tissues, contact sensitivity and detection of thetacells in pituitary dwarf mice, in: Microenvironmental Aspects of Immunity (B. D. Jankovic and K Isakovic, eds.), p. 655, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Baroni, C. D., and Doria G., 1974, An experimental model of hormone dependent immunodeficiency disease, Boll. Ist. Sieroter. Milan. Suppl 53: 259.Google Scholar
  5. Baroni, C. D., Fabris, N., and Bertoli, G., 1967, Age dependency pituitary dwarf and normal Snell-Bagg mouse, Experientia 23: 1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baroni, C. D., Fabris, N., and Bertoli, G., 1969, Effects of hormones on development and function of lymphoid tissues. I. Synergistic action of thyroxin and somatotropic hormone in pituitary dwarf mice, Immunology 17: 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baroni, C. D., Pesando, P. D., and Bertoli, G., 1971, Effects of hormones on development and function of lymphoid tissues. II. Delayed development of immunological capacity in pituitary dwarf mice, Immunology 20: 455.Google Scholar
  8. Baroni, C. D., Scelsi, R., Mingazinni, P. L., Cavallero, A., and Uccini, S., 1972, Delayed hypersensitivity in the hereditary pituitary dwarf Snell-Bagg mouse, Nature (London) 237: 219.Google Scholar
  9. Bartke, A., 1964, Histology of the anterior hypophysis thyroid and gonads of two types of dwarf mice, Anat. Rec. 149: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartke, A., 1965, The response of two types of dwarf mice to growth hormone, thyrotropin and thyroxine, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 5: 418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatterton, R. T., Jr., Murray, C. L., and Hellman, L., 1973, Endocrine effects on leukocytopoiesis in the rat. I. Evidence for growth hormone secretion as the leukocytopoietic stimulus following acute cortisol-induced lymphopenia, Enocrinology 92: 775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, H. W., Meyer, H., Heiniger, H.-J., and Huebner, R. J., 1972, Tumorigenesis in strain dw/J mice and induction by prolactin of the gs antigen of endogenous C-type RNA tumor virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, K. A., 1975, Mitogen-induced blast transformations of lymphoid cells from suckling and weaned pituitary dwarf mice, Masters thesis, Marquette University.Google Scholar
  14. Comsa, J., Leonhardt, H., and Schwartz, J. A., 1975, Influence of the thymus-corticotropin-growth hormone interaction on the rejection of skin allografts in the rat, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 249: 387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dumont, F., Robert, F., and Bischoff, P., 1979, T and B lymphocytes in pituitary dwarf Snell-Bagg mice, Immunology 38: 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Duquesnoy, R. J., 1971, Studies of the mechanism of prevention of immunologic deficiency in suckling dwarf mice, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 12: 387.Google Scholar
  17. Duquesnoy, R. J., 1972, Immunodeficiency of the thymus-dependent system of the Ames dwarf mouse, J. Immunol. 108: 1578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Duquesnoy, R. J., 1973, The pituitary dwarf mouse: A model for study of endocrine immunodficiency disease, in: Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Man. Birth Defects, Original Article Series (R. A. Good and D Bergsma, eds.), p. 535, The National Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Duquesnoy, R. J., and Ahrens, R. C., 1973, Increased responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin and graft-versus-host reactivity of thymus cells from Snell-Bagg dwarf mice, J. Immunol. 110: 578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duquesnoy, R. J., and Good, R. A., 1970, Prevention of immunologic deficiency in pituitary dwarf mice by prolonged nursing, J. Immunol. 106: 1553.Google Scholar
  21. Duquesnoy, R. J., Mariani, T., and Good, R. A., 1969, Effect of hypophysectomy on immunological recovery after sublethal irradiation of adult rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131: 1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Duquesnoy, R. J., Kalpaktsoglou, P. K., and Good, R. A., 1970, Immunological studies of the Snell-Bagg pituitary dwarf mouse, Proc. Soc. Biol. Med. 133: 201.Google Scholar
  23. Duquesnoy, R. J., Christensen, K., Pedersen, G. M., and Kemp, R. G., 1975, Development of immunodeficiency of pituitary dwarf mice, Am. Zool. 15: 167.Google Scholar
  24. Enerback, L., Lundin, P. M., and Mellgren, J., 1961, Pituitary hormones elaborated during stress. Action on lymphoid tissues, serum proteins and antibody tiers, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 51 (Suppl. 144: 141).Google Scholar
  25. Eshet, R., Manheimer, S., Chobseing, P., and Laron, Z., 1975, Human growth hormone receptors in human circulating lymphocytes, Horm. Metab. Res. 7: 352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Hormones and the immune response, in: Developmental Aspects of Antibody Formation and Structure (J. Sterzl and I Riha, ed.), p. 79, Czechoslovak Academy Press, Prague.Google Scholar
  27. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1971a, Hormones and the immunological capacity. III. The immunodeficiency disease of the hypopituitary Snell-Bagg dwarf mouse, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fabris, N., Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E. 1971b, Hormones and the immunological capacity. IV. Restorative effects of developmental hormones of lymphocytes on the immunodeficiency syndrome of the dwarf mouse, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 9: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Garcia, J. F., and Geschwind, I. I., 1968, Investigation of growth hormone secretion in selected mammalian species, Excerpta Med. Int. Congr. Ser. 158: 267.Google Scholar
  30. Gisler, R. H., and Schenkel-Hullinger, L., 1971, Hormonal regulation of the immune response. II. Influence of pituitary and adrenal activity on immune responsiveness, Cell. Immunol. 2: 646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glick, S. M., Roth, J., Yalow, R. S., and Berson, S. A., 1965, The regulation of growth hormone secretion, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 21: 241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Golde, D. W., Eersch, N., and Cline, M. J., 1996, Potentiation of erythropoiesis in vitro by dexamethasone, J. Clin. Invest. 57: 57.Google Scholar
  33. Gordon, A. S., 1954, Endocrine influences upon the formed elements of blood and blood-forming organs, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 10: 339.Google Scholar
  34. Gruneberg, M., 1952, The Genetics of the Mouse, p. 123, Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
  35. Hanjan, S. N. S., and Talwar, G. P., 1975, Effect of growth hormone on surface charge and electrophoretic mobility of thymocytes from young and aged rats, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 3: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hollander, W. F., and Gowen, J. W., 1956, An extreme non-agouti mutant in the mouse, J. Hered. 47: 221.Google Scholar
  37. Huang, Y.-C., Duquesnoy, R. J., and Kemp, R. G., 1973, Properties of adenylate cyclase from mouse thymus, Int. J. Biochem. 4: 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kalden, J. R., Evans, M. M., and Irvin, W. J., 1970, The effect of hypophysectomy on the immune response, Immunology 18: 671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kemp, R. G., Huang, Y.-C, and Duquesnoy, R. J., 1973, Decreased epinephrine response of adenylate cyclase activity of lymphoid cells from immunodeficient pituitary dwarf mice, J. Immunol. 111: 1855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kemp, T., and Marx, L., 1937, Beeinflussing von erblichem hypophysarem Zwergwuchs bei Mausen durch verschiedene Hypophysenauszug und Thyroxin, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 14: 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lemmel, E. M., Cooper, M. D., and Good, R. A., 1971, Neonatal thymectomy and the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes in mice, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 41: 873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lesniak, M. A., Roth, J., Gorden, P., and Gavin, J. R., 1973, Human growth hormone radioreceptor assay using cultured human lymphocytes, Nature (London) New Biol. 241: 20.Google Scholar
  43. Lewis, U. J., 1967, Growth hormone in normal and dwarf mice, Mem. Soc. Endocrinol. 15: 179.Google Scholar
  44. Lundin, P. M., 1960, Action of hypophysectomy on antibody formation in the rat, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 48: 351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McManus, J. P., and Whitfield, J. F., 1969, Mediation of the mitogenic action of growth hormone by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 132: 409.Google Scholar
  46. Meineke, H. A., and Crafts, R. C., 1956, The effect of growth hormone on hematopoiesis in hypophysectomized adult female rats, Endocrinology 59: 444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Muller, E. E., Saito, T., Arimura, A., and Schally, A. V., 1967, Growth hormone releasing activity in plasma of normal and hypophysectomized rats, Endocrinology 80: 77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nagareda, C. S., 1954, Antibody formation and the effect of x-irradiation on circulatory antibody levels in the hypophysectomized rat, J. Immunol. 73: 88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Nagy, E., and Berczi, I., 1978, Immunodeficiency in hypophysectomized rats, Acta Endocrinol. 89: 530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Pandian, M. R., and Talwar, G. P., 1971, Effect of growth hormone on the metabolism of thymus and on the immune response against sheep erythrocytes, J. Exp. Med. 134: 1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pelletier, M., Montplaisir, S., Dardenne, M., and Back, J. F., 1976, Thymic hormone activity and spontaneous autoimmunity in dwarf mice and their littermates, Immunology 30: 783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Peschle, C., Rappaport, I. A., Sasso, G. F., Gordon, A. S., and Condorelli, M., 1972, Mechanism of growth hormone (GH) action on erythropoiesis, Endocrinology 91: 511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pierpaoli, W., and Sorkin, E., 1969, Effect of growth hormone and anti-growth hormone serum on the lymphatic tissue and the immune response, Antibiot. Chemother. 15: 122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pierpaoli, W., Baroni, C., Fabris, N., and Sorkin, E., 1969, Hormones and immunological capacity. II. Reconstitution of antibody production in hormonally deficient mice by somatotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone and thyroxin, Immunology 16: 217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rastogi, K. S., and Campbell, J., 1970, Effect of growth hormone on cortisone-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduction in pancreatic insulin in the mouse, Endocrinology 87: 226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schaible, R., and Gowen, J. W., 1961, A new dwarf mouse , Genetics 46: 896.Google Scholar
  57. Schneider, G. B., 1976, Immunological competence in Snell-Bagg pituitary dwarf mice: Response to the contact-sensitizing agent oxazolone, J. Anat. 145: 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shire, J. G. M., and Hambly, E. A., 1973, The adrenal glands of mice with hereditary pituitary dwarfism, Acta Pathol Microbiol. Scand. Sect. A 81: 225.Google Scholar
  59. Sinclair, N. R. St. C., and Elliott, E. V., 1968, Neonatal thymectomy and the decrease in antigen-sensitivity of the primary response and immunological “memory” systems, Immunology 15: 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Siperstein, E. R., and Miller, K. J., 1970, Further cytophysiologic evidence for the identity of the cells that produce adrenocorticotrophic hormone, Endocrinology 86: 451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Snell, G. D., 1929, Dwarf, a new Mendelian recessive character of the house mouse, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15: 733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Talwar, G. P., Kumar, N., Pandian, M. R., and Gupta, P. D., 1974, Cellular and molecular correlates of decline in responsiveness of cartilage and thymus to growth hormone in aged animals, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Talwar, G. P., Pandian, M. R., Kumar, N., Hanjan, S. N. S., Saxena, R. K., and Krisha Ray, R., 1975, Mechanism of action of pituitary growth hormone, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 31: 141.Google Scholar
  64. Till, J. E., and McCulloch, E. A., 1961, A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells, Radiat. Res. 14: 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tyrey, L., and Nalbandon, A. V., 1972, Influence of anterior hypothalamic lesions on circulating antibody titers in the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 222: 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wegelius, O., 1959, The dwarf mouse, an animal with secondary myxedema, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 101: 225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Whitfield, J. F., McManus, J. P., and Rixon, R., 1971, Stimulation by growth hormone of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and proliferation of rat thymic lymphocytes, Hormone Metab. Res. 3: 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilkinson, P. C., Singh, H., and Sorkin, E., 1970, Serum immunoglobulin levels in thymus deficient pituitary dwarf mice, Immunology 18: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rene J. Duquesnoy
    • 1
  • Grete M. Pedersen
    • 1
  1. 1.Blood Center of Southeastern Wisconsin and Department of MicrobiologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations