Colon pp 121-139 | Cite as

Storage and Propulsion along the Large Intestine

  • Ghislain Devroede
Part of the Topics in Gastroenterology book series (TGEN)


The main function of the large bowel is to store and absorb water, electrolytes, volatile fatty acids, nitrogenous substances, and some vitamins, but at the same time it must be able to propel its contents when they have reached the proper consistency and to interact with the central nervous system in order to provide continence and a socially acceptable pattern of defecation. The complex nature of the motility of the colon, rectum, and anus is not surprising in view of the need for the combination of retention and excretion properties over barely 100 cm of bowel.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Anal Sphincter Anal Canal Distal Colon Internal Anal Sphincter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Connell AM, Lennard-Jones JE, Madanagopalan N: The distribution of fecal x-ray shadows in subjects without gastrointestinal disease. Proc R Soc Med 57:894–895, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edwards DAW, Beck ER: Fecal flow, mixing and consistency. Am J Dig Dis 16:706–708, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gramiak R, Ross P, Olmsted WW: Normal motor activity of the human colon: Combined radiotelemetric manometry and slow-frame cineroentgenography. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 113:301–310, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ritchie JA: Colonic motor activity and bowel function. I. Normal movement of contents. Gut 9:442–456, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ritchie JA: Colonic motor activity and bowel function. II. Distribution and incidence of motor activity at rest and after food and carbachol. Gut 9:502–511, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cannon WB: The movements of the intestines studied by means of the r̈oentgen rays. Am J Physiol 6:251–277, 1902.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chauve A, Devroede G, Bastin E: Intraluminal pressure during perfusion of the human colon in situ. Gastroenterology 70:336–340, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levitan R, Fordtran JS, Burrows BA, et al: Water and salt absorption in the human colon. J Clin Invest 41:1754–1759, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelley ML, Jr, Gordon EA, De Weese JA: Pressure studies of the ileocolonic junctional zone of dogs. Am J Physiol 209: 333–339, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Conklin JL, Christensen J: Local specialization at ileocecal junction of the cat and opossum. Am J Physiol 228:1075–1081, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kelley ML Jr, De Weese JA: Effects of eating and intraluminal filling on ileocolonic junctional zone pressures. Am J Physiol 216/6: 1491–1495, 1969.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Donaldson RM: The relation of enteric bacterial populations to gastrointestinal function and disease, in Sleisenger MH and Fordtran JS (eds): Gastrointestinal Disease. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1978, pp 79–92.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pahlin PE, Kewenter J: Reflexogenic contraction of the ileocecal sphincter in the cat following small or large intestinal distension. Acta Physiol Scand 95:126–132, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pahlin PE, Kewenter J: Sympathetic nervous control of cat ileocecal sphincter. Am J Physiol 231:296–305, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pahlin PE, Kewenter J: The vagal control of the ileocecal sphincter in the cat. Acta Physiol Scand 96:433–442, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vanasin B, Ustach TJ, Schuster MM: Electrical and motor activity of human and dog colon in vitro. Johns Hopkins Med J 134:201–210, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christensen J, Anuras S, Hauser RL: Migrating spike bursts and electrical slow waves in the cat colon: Effect of sectioning. Gastroenterology 66:240–247, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Christensen J: Myoelectric control of the colon. Gastroenterology 68:601–609, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wienbeck M, Christensen, J. Weisbrodt NW: Electromyography of the colon in the unanesthetized cat. Am J Dig Dis 17:356–362, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wienbeck M, Christensen J: Effects of some drugs on electrical activity of the isolated colon of the cat. Gastroenterology 6l:470–478, 1971.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sarna SK, Bardakjian BL, Waterfall WE, et al: Human colonic electrical control activity (ECA). Gastroenterology 78:1526–1536, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Torsoli A, Ramorino ML, Crucioli V: The relationships between anatomy and motor activity of the colon. Am J Dig Dis 13:462–467, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Halls J: Bowel content shift during normal defecation. Proc R Soc Med 58:859–860, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Almy TP, Tulin M: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress: Experimental production of changes simulating the “irritable colon.” Gastroenterology 8:616–626, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Almy TP, Kern F. Tulin M: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress. II. Experimental production of sigmoid spasm in healthy persons. Gastroenterology 12:425–436, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Almy TP, Hinkle LE Jr, Berle B, et al: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress. III. Experimental production of sigmoid spasm in patients with spastic constipation. Gastroenterology 12:437–449, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Almy TP: Experimental studies on the irritable colon. Am J Med 10:60–67, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thompson WS, Heaton KW: Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. Gastroenterology 79:283–288, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greenbaum DS, Ferguson RK, Kater LA, et al: A controlled therapeutic study of the irritable-bowel syndrome. Eng J Med 288: 13–16, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Palmer RL, Stonehill E, Crisp AH, et al: Psychological characteristics of patients with the iritable bowel syndrome. Postgrad Med J 50:416–419, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whitehead WE, Engel BT, Schuster MM: Irritable bowel syndrome. Physiological and psychological differences between diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant patients. Dig Dis Sci 25:404–413, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Patel PD, Picologlou BP, Lykoudis PS: Biorheological aspects of colonic activity. II. Experimental investigation of the rheological behavior of human feces. Biorheology 10:441–445, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Connell AM: The motility of the pelvic colon. I. Motility in normals and in patients with asymptomatic duodenal ulcer. Gut 2:175–186, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hill JR, Kelley ML, Schlegel JF, et al: Pressure profile of the rectum and anus of healthy persons. Dis Colon Rectum 3:203–209, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chowdhury AR, Dinoso VP, Lorber SH: Characterization of a hyperactive segment at the rectosigmoid junction. Gastroenterology 71:584–588, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bloom AA, Lo Presti P, Farrar JT: Motility of the intact human colon. Gastroenterology 54:232–240, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Code CF, Hightower NC, Morlock CG: Motility of the alimentary canal in man. Am J Med 13:328–351, 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Connell AM: The motility of the pelvic colon. II. Paradoxical motility in diarrhea and constipation. Gut 3:342–348, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ritchie JA, Ardran GM, Truelove SC: Motor activity of the sigmoid colon of humans. A combined study by intraluminal pressure recording and cineradiography. Gastroenterology 43:642–668, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Connell AM, Jones FA, Rowlands EN: Motility of the pelvic colon. IV. Abdominal pain associated with colonic hypermotility after meals. Gut 6:105–112, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Snape WJ Jr, Carlson GM, Cohen S: Colonic myoelectric activity in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 70:326–330, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Snape WJ Jr, Carlson GM, Matarazzo SA et al: Evidence that abnormal myoelectrical activity produces colonic motor dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 72:383–387, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Edwards DAW, Beck ER: Movement of radio-opacified feces during defecation. Am J Dig Dis 16:709–711, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arhan P, Faverdin C, Persoz B, et al: Relationship between viscoelastic properties of the rectum and anal pressure in man. J Appl Physiol 41:677–682, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Arhan P, Devroede G, Persoz B: Response of the anal canal to repeated distension of the rectum. Clin Invest Med 2:83–88, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Colin DR, Galmiche JP, Geffroy Y, et al: Elastic properties of the rectal wall in normal adults and in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 77:45–48, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Farthing MJG, Lennard-Jones JE: Sensibility of the rectum to distension and the anorectal distension reflex in ulcerative colitis. Gut 19:64–69, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arhan P, Devroede G, Danis K, et al: Viscoelastic properties of the rectal wall in Hirschsprung’s disease. J Clin Invest 62:82–87, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Meier-Ruge W, Hunziker O, Tobler HJ, et al: The pathophysiology of aganglionosis of the entire colon (Zuelzer-Wilson syndrome). Morphometric investigations of the extent of sacral parasympathetic innervation of the circular muscles of the aganglionic colon. Beitr Pathol 147:228–236, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scott HW Jr, Cantrell JR: Colon-metrographic studies of the effects of section of the parasympathetic nerves of colon. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 85:310–319, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    White JC, Verlot MG, Ehrentheil O: Neurogenic disturbances of the colon and their investigation by the colonmetrogram. Ann Surg 112:1042–1057, 1940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shafik A: A new concept of the anatomy of the anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation. The external anal sphincter: a triple-loop system. Invest Urol 12:412–419, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bennett RC, Duthie HL: The functional importance of the internal anal sphincter. Br J Surg 51:355–357, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Diamant NE, Harris LD: Comparison of objective measurement of anal sphincter strength with anal sphincter pressures and levator ani function. Gastroenterology 56:110–116, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Henriksen FW, Anthonisen B: Measurement of the anal sphincter strength by a simple method suitable for routine use. Scand J Gastroenterol 7:555–558, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Phillips SF, Edwards DAW: Some aspects of anal continence and defecation. Gut 6:396–406, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kerremans R: Morphological and Physiological Aspects of Anal Continence and Defecation. Brussels, Presses Académiques Européennes, 1969.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Boston VE, Scott JES: Anorectal manometry as a diagnostic method in the neonatal period. J Pediatr Surg 11:9–16, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Boston VE, Cywes S, Davies MRQ: Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of internal anal sphincter function in the newborn. Gut 18:1036–1044, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Holschneider AM, Kellner E, Streibl P, et al: The development of anorectal continence and its significance in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 11:151–156, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hancock BD: Measurement of anal pressure and motility. Gut 17:645–651, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Denny-Brown D, Robertson EG: Investigation of nervous control of defecation. Brain 58:256–310, 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gowers WR: The automatic action of the sphincter ani. Proc R Soc London 26:77–84, 1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Martelli H, Devroede G, Arhan P, et al: Some parameters of large bowel motility in normal man. Gastroenterology 75:612–618, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schuster MM, Hendrix TR, Mendeloff AI: The internal anal sphincter response: Manometric studies on its normal physiology, neural pathways, and alteration in bowel disorders. J Clin Invest 42:196–207, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Frenckner B, Euler CV: Influence of pudendal block on the function of the anal sphincters. Gut 16:482–489, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lane RHS, Parks AG: Function of the anal sphincters following colo-anal anastomosis. Br J Surg 64:596–599, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Faverdin C, Domic C, Arhan P, et al: Quantitative analysis of anorectal pressures in Hirschsprung’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 24:422–427, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Devroede G, Lamarche J: Functional importance of extrinsic parasympathetic innervation to the distal colon and rectum in man. Gastroenterology 66:273–280, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Devroede G, Arhan P, Duguay C, et al: Traumatic constipation. Gastroenterology 77:1258–1267, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Frenckner B: Function of the anal sphincters in spinal man. Gut 16:638–644, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Frenckner B, Ihre T: Influence of autonomic nerves on the internal anal sphincter in man. Gut 17:306–312, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Garrett JR, Howard ER, Jones W: The internal anal sphincter in the cat: A study of nervous mechanisms affecting tone and reflex activity. J Physiol 243:153–156, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Engel BT, Nikoomanesh P, Schuster MM: Operant conditioning of rectosphincteric responses in the treatment of fecal incontinence. N Engl J Med 290:646–649, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schuster MM: Biofeedback treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Med Clin N Am 61:907–912, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Verder H, Krasilnikoff PA, Scheibel E: Anal tonometry in the neonatal period in mature and premature children. Acta Paediatr Scand 64:592–596, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith B: Pre and postnatal development of the ganglion cells of the rectum and its surgical implication. J Pediatr Surg 3:386–391, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yunis EJ, Dibbins AW, Sherman FE: Rectal suction biopsy in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease in infants. Arch Pathol Lab Med 100:329–333, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Clark DA: Times of first void and first stool in 500 Newborns. Pediatrics 60:457–459, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Duthie HL, Bennett RC: The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: A possible factor in anal continence. Gut 4:179–182, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ihre T: Studies on anal function in continent and incontinent patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 9:1–64, 1974.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schuster MM, Hookman P, Hendrix TR, et al: Simultaneous manometric recording of internal and external anal sphincteric reflexes. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 116:79–88, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bishop B, Garry RC, Roberts TDM, et al: Control of the external sphincter of the anus in the cat. J Physiol (London) 134:229–240, 1956.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Porter NH: A physiologic study of the pelvic floor in rectal prolapse. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 31:379–404, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Duthie HL, Gaims FW: Sensory nerve-endings and sensation in the anal region of man. Br J Surg 47:585–594, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Alva J, Mendeloff AI, Schuster MM: Reflex and electromyographic abnormalities associated with fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 53:101–106, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bishop B: Reflex activity of the external anal sphincter of cat. J Neurophysiol 22:679–692, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Floyd WF, Walls EW: Electromyography of the sphincter ani externus in man. J Physiol 122:599–609, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kerremans R, Rosselle N: The parameters of the EMG activity of the external anal sphincters and M. pubo-rectalis in normal adult and elderly subjects. Electromyography 8:89–104, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Caldwell KPS: The electrical control of sphincter incompetence. Lancet 2:174–175, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hopkinson BR, Lightwood R: Electrical treatment of anal incontinence. Lancet 1:297–298, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Taylor I, Duthie HL, Smallwood R, et al: The effect of stimulation on the myoelectrical activity of the rectosigmoid in man. Gut 15:599–607, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tobon F, Ustach J, Hambrecht DD, et al: Electrical recording from circular smooth muscle of rectum in humans, abstracted. Gastroenterology 54:1304, 1968.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ustach TJ, Tobon F, Hambrecht T, et al: Electrophysiological aspects of human sphincter function. J Clin Invest 49:41–48, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hinton JM, Lennard-Jones JE, Young AC: A new method for studying gut transit times using radioopaque markers. Gut 10:842–847, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kohler R: Evacuation of the normal large intestine. Acta Radiol Diagn 2:6–16, 1964.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Couturier D, Roze C, Couturier-Turpin MH, et al: Electromyography of the colon in situ: An experimental study in man and in the rabbit. Gastroenterology 56:317–322, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Devroede G, Phillips SF: Studies of the perfusion technique for colonic absorption. Gastroenterology 56:92–100, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bounous G, Devroede G: Effects of an elemental diet on human fecal flora. Gastroenterology 66:210–214, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Connell AM: Natural fiber and bowel dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 29:1427–1431, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Payler DK, Pomare EW, Heaton KW, et al: The effect of wheat bran on intestinal transit. Gut 16:209–213, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Devroede G: Constipation: Mechanisms and management, in Gastrointestinal Disease, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1978, pp 368–386.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Holdstock DJ, Misiewicz JJ, Smith T, et al: Propulsion (mass movements) in the human colon and its relationship to meals and somatic activity. Gut 11:91–99, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hardcastle JD, Mann CV: Study of large bowel peristalsis. Gut 9:512–520, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hardcastle JD, Mann CV: Physical factors in the stimulation of colonic peristalsis. Gut 11:41–46, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hardcastle JD, Wilkins JL: The action of sennosides and related compounds on human colon and rectum. Gut 11:1038–1042, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Weems WA, Szurszewski JH: Modulation of colonic motility by peripheral neural inputs to neurons of the inferior msenteric ganglion. Gastroenterology 73:273–278, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gunterberg B, Kewenter J, Petersen I, et al: Anorectal function after major resections of the sacrum with bilateral or unilateral sacrifice of sacral nerves. Br J Surg 63:546–554, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    De Groat WC, Krier J: The sacral parasympathetic reflex pathway regulating colonic motility and defecation in the cat. J Physiol 276:481–500, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Crowcroft PJ, Holman ME, Szurszewski JH: Excitation input from the distal colon to the inferior mesenteric ganglion in the guineapig. J Physiol 219:443–461, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Job C, Lundberg A: Reflex excitation of cells in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of stimulation of the hypogastric nerve. Acta Physiol Scand 26:366–382, 1952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Szurszewski JH, Weems WA: A study of peripheral input to and its control by postganglionic neurones of the inferior mesenteric ganglion. J Physiol 256:541–556, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    De Groat WC, Krier J: The central control of the lumbar sympathetic pathway to the large intestine of the cat. J Physiol 289:449–468, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Frigo GM, Lecchini S: An improved method for studying the peristaltic reflex in the isolated colon. Br J Pharmacol 39:346–356, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Crema A, Frigo GM, Lecchini S: A pharmacological analysis of the peristaltic reflex in the isolated colon of the guinea-pig or cat. Br J Pharmacol 39:334–345, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Costa M, Furness JB: The peristaltic reflex: An analysis of the nerve pathways and their pharmacology. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 294:47–60, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kock NG, Hulten L, Leandoer L: A study of the motility in different parts of the human colon: Resting activity, response to feeding and prostigmin. Scand J Gastroenterol 3:163–169, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Snape WJ Jr, Matarazzo SA, Cohen S: Effect of eating and gastrointestinal hormones on human colonic myoelectrical and motor activity. Gastroenterology 75:373–378, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Snape WJ Jr, Wright SH, Battle WM, Cohen S: The gastrocolic response: Evidence for a neural mechanism. Gastroenterology 77:1235–1240, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Snape WJ Jr, Carlson GM, Cohen S: Human colonic myoelectric activity in response to prostigmin and the gastrointestinal hormones. Am J Dig Dis 22:881–887, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bennett A, Stockley HL: The intrinsic innervation of the human alimentary tract and its relation to function. Gut 16:443–453, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kirwan WO, Smith AN, Mitchell WD, et al: Bile acids and colonic motility in the rabbit and the human. Gut 16:894–902, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wright SH, Snape WJ, Battle W, et al: Effect of dietary components on gastrocolonic response. Am J Physiol 238:228–232, 1980.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Deller DJ, Wangel AG: Intestinal motility in man. I. A study combining the use of intraluminal pressure recording and cineradiography. Gastroenterology 48:45–57, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fink S, Friedman G: The differential effect of drugs on the proximal and distal colon. Am J Med 28:534–540, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Murrell TGC, Wangel AG, Deller DJ: Intestinal motility in man. IV. Effect of serotonin on intestinal motility in subjects with diarrhea and constipation. Gastroenterology 51:656–663, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bennett A, Eley KG, Stockley HL: Inhibition of peristalsis in guinea-pig isolated ileum and colon by drugs that block prostaglandin synthesis. Br J Pharmacol 57:335–340, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Eklund S, Jodal M, Lundgren O, et al: Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on blood flow, motility and fluid transport in the gastrointestinal tract of the cat. Acta Physiol Scand 105:461–468, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kock NG, Darle N, Dotevall G: Inhibition of intestinal motility in man by glucagon given intraportally. Gastroenterology 53:88–92, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lanfranchi GA, Marzio L, Cortini C, et al: Motor effect of dopamine on human sigmoid colon. Evidence for specific receptors. Dig Dis 23:257–263, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Manning AP, Wyman JB, Heaton KW: How trustworthy are bowel histories? Comparison of recalled and recorded information. Br Med J 24:213–214, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Maratka Z: Psychosomatic aspects of defecation and its disturbances. Digestion 12:39–42, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Walker ARP: Plumbing and bowel habit. Lancet 2:456, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Connell AM, Hilton C, Irvine G, et al: Variation of bowel habit in two population samples. Br Med J 2:1095–1099, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Taylor I. A survey of normal bowel habit. Br J Clin Pract 29:289–291, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rendtorff RC, Kashgarian M: Stool patterns of healthy adult males. Dis Colon Rectum 10:222–228, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Glober GA, Nomura A, Kamiyama S, et al: Bowel transit-time and stool weight in populations with different colon-cancer risks. Lancet 2:110–111, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    MacLennan R, Jensen OM, Mosbech J, et al: Diet, transit time, stool weight, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Am J Clin Nutr 31:S239–S242, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Stephen AM, Cummings JH: The microbial contribution to human faecal mass. J Med Microbiol 13:45–56, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Stephen AM, Cummings JH: Mechanism of action of dietary fibre in the human colon. Nature (London) 284:283–284, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McCamman S, Beyer PL, Rhodes JB: A comparison of three defined formula diets in normal volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 30:1655–1660, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mekhjian HS, Phillips SF: Perfusion of the canine colon with unconjugated bile acids: Effect on water and electrolyte transport, morphology and bile acid absorption. Gastroenterology 59:120–129, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mekhjian HS, Phillips SF, Hofmann AF: Colonic secretion of water and electrolytes induced by bile acids: Perfusion studies in man. J Clin Invest 50:1569–1577, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wyman JB, Heaton KW, Manning AP, et al: Variability of colonic function in healthy subjects. Gut 19:146–150, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rees WDW, Rhodes J: Altered bowel habit and menstruation. Lancet 2:475, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lium R: Observations on the etiology of ulcerative colitis: Rectometrogram and rectal reactions of 8 normal subjects and one patient with ulcerative colitis before and after spinal anesthesia; preliminary report. Am J Med Soc 197:841–847, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Goligher JC, Hughes ESR: Sensibility of the rectum and colon: Its role in the mechanism of anal continence. Lancet 1: 543–548, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Roth HP, Fein SB, Sturman MF: The mechanisms responsible for the urge to defecate. Gastroenterology 32:717–726, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Walls EW: Recent observations on the anatomy of the anal canal. Proc R Soc London (52suppl): 85–87, 1959.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Winckler G: Remarques sur la morphologie et l’innovation du muscle releveur de l’anus. Arch Anat Histol Embryol 41:77–95, 1958.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Tagart REB: The anal canal and rectum: Their varying relationship and its effect on anal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 9:449–452, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kerremans R: Radiocinematografie van de ano-rectale Streek: een radiocinematografische Studie van de anale continentie en defaecatie. Tijdschr Gastro-Enterol 11:81–91, 1968.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Fedail SS, Harvey RF, Bums-Cox CJ: Abdominal and thoracic pressures during defaecation. Br Med J 1:91, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Burkitt DP, James PA: Low-residue diets and hiatus hernia. Lancet 2:128–130, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghislain Devroede
    • 1
  1. 1.Départements de Chirurgie Générale et de Physiologie, Unité de Recherche Gastrointestinale, Faculté de MédecineUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

Personalised recommendations