Silvicultural Energy Farms

  • Jean Francois Henry


Biomass in its various forms is an attractive alternative source of energy. Through photosynthesis, biomass collects and stores low-intensity solar energy which can then be harvested at will and released through direct combustion, thermochemical conversion, or biochemical conversion.


Hybrid Poplar Wood Fuel Short Rotation Short Rotation Coppice Land Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, The Outlook for Timber in the United States, Forest Resource Report No. 20, Washington, D.C. (1974).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Statistics of the U.S., 1977, Review Draft, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Howlett and A. Gamache, Silvicultural Biomass Farms: Forest and Mill Residues as Potential Sources of Biomass, Vol. VI, MITRE Corporation/Metrek Division, Technical Report No. 7347, McLean, Va. (1977).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. J. Salo and J. F. Henry, Wood based biomass resources in the United States: Near term and long term prospects, in: Proceedings EPRI/GRI Workshop on Biomass Energy and Technology, Santa Clara, Ca. (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. H. Spurr and H. J. Vaux, Timber: Biological and economic potential, Science 191, 752 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. B. Grantham, Anticipated competition for available wood fuels in the United States, paper presented at the American Chemical Society Meeting (1977).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. M. Herrick and C. L. Brown, A new concept in cellulose production—Silage Sycamore, Agri. Sci. Res. 5, 8 (1967).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. F. Dutrow, Economic Implications of Silage Sycamore, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Research Paper, Southern Forest Experiment Station New Orleans, La. (1971), pp. 50–66.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. E. Young, Wood Fiber Farming: An Ecologically Sound and Productive Use of Right-of-Ways, University of Maine, School of Forest Resources (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Steinbeck, J. T. May, and R. G. McAlpine, Silage cellulose—A new concept, in: Forest Engineering Conference Proceedings, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Saint Joseph, Michigan (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. H. Ribe, Will short-rotation forestry supply future pulpwood needs?, Pulp and Paper December (1972).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. H. G. Smith and D. S. DeBell, Opportunities for short rotation culture and complete utilization of seven Northwestern tree species, Forestry Chronicle 49, 1 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. R. Larson and J. C. Gordon, Photosynthesis and wood yield, Agri. Sci. Rev. 7, 7–14 (1969).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. J. Schreiner, Mini-Rotation Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Res. Pap. NE-174, Northeast Forestry Experimental Station, Upper Darby, Pa. (1970).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Steinbeck and J. T. May, Productivity of very young Platanus occidentalis Plantings Grown at Various Spacings, in: Forest Biomass Studies, University of Maine Press, Orano, Maine (1971), pp. 153–162.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. R. Saucier, A. Clark, and R. G. McAlpine, Above ground biomass yields of short rotation sycamore, Wood Sci. 5, 1–6 (1972).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. H. Ribe, Will short-rotation forestry supply future pulpwood needs?, Pulp and Paper December (1972).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. P. Belanger and J. R. Saucier, Intensive culture of hardwoods in the South, Iowa State J. Res. 49 (3), Part 2, 339–344 (1975).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. E. Kennedy, Jr., Influence of Cutting Cycle and Spacing on Coppice Sycamore Yield, U.S. Forest Service Research Note S.O.-193, Southern Forest Experimental Station, New Orleans (1975).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Steinbeck, Short-rotation hardwood forestry in the southeast, in: Proceedings Second Annual Symposium on Fuels from Biomass (W. W. Shuster, ed.), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, June 20–22 (1978).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. P. Kormanik, G. L. Tyre, and R. P. Belanger, A case history of two short rotation coppice plantations of sycamore on southern piedmont bottomlands, in: IUFRO Biomass Studies, College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, Maine (1973), pp. 351–360.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Steinbeck, R. G. McAlpine, and J. T. May, Short rotation culture of sycamore: A status report, J. For. 70, 210–213 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Zavitkovski, Biomass Farms for Energy Production: Biological Considerations, SAF/CIF Convention, Proceedings, St. Louis, Missouri, October (1978).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. R. Ek and J. P. Brodie, Preliminary analysis of short-rotation Aspen management, Can. J. For. Res. 5, 245–258 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. F. W. Pollard, Above ground dry matter production in three stands of trembling Aspen, Can. J. For. Res. 2 (27), (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Doucet, Biomass d’un peuplement de peuplier faux tremble age de six ans, Que. Minist. Terres For. Serv. Rech. Note No. 7 (1977).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. B. Berry, Production of dry matter from aspen stands harvested on short rotations, in: IUFRD Biomass Studies (H. E. Young, ed.) College of Life Science and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, Me. (1973).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Inter Group Consulting Economists, Ltd., Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources: Feasibility Study, Volume C: Forest Studies, Report prepared for the Government of Canada, Interdepartmental Steering Committee on Canadian Liquid Fuels Program Options, Winnipeg, Manitoba, March (1978).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. C. Carter and E. H. White, Dry weight and nutrient accumulation in young stands of cottonwood, Circular 190, Agr. Exp. Sta., Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama (1971).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. M. Krinard and R. L. Johnson, Ten-year results in a cottonwood spacing study, USDA Forest Service Research Paper 50-106, Southeastern Forest Exp. Station (1975).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. L. Schmidt and D. S. DeBell, Wood production and kraft pulping of short rotation hardwoods in the Pacific Northwest, in: IUFRO Biomass Studies, (H. E. Young, ed.), Coll. of Life Sci. and Agri., Univ. of Maine, Orono, Maine (1973).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. S. DeBell, Short rotation culture of hardwoods in the Pacific Northwest, Iowa State J. Res. 49 (3), Part 2, 345 (1975).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. E. Heilman, D. V. Peabody, D. S. DeBell, and R. F. Strand, A test of close-spaced short-rotation culture of black cottonwood, Can. J. For. Res. 2 (4), 456–459 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Musnier, Etude financiere et de gestion provisioneile des plantations et des fermes populicoles, Quebec Ministere des Terres et des Forets, Service de la Recherche, No. 31 (1976).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. R. Ek and D. H. Dawson, Yields of intensively grown populus: Actual and projected, in: Intensive Plantation Culture, USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-21, N. Central For. Exp. Sta., Rhinelander, Wisconsin (1976).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. W. Anderson and L. Zsuffa, Yield and Wood Quality of Hybrid Cottonwood Grown in 2-Year Rotation, Forest Research Report No. 101, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. W. Anderson and L. Zsuffa, Farming Hybrid Poplar for Food and Fiber, Forest Research Report No. 103, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (1977).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. F. Laundrie and J. G. Berbee, High yield of kraft pulp from rapid growth hybrid poplar trees, Research Paper FPL 186, USDA Forest Service, Wisconsin (1972).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. H. Dawson, J. G. Isebrandts, and J. C. Gordon, Growth and dry weight yields and specific gravity, Research Paper NC-122, USDA Forest Service (1976).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Intensive Plantation Culture, General Technical Report No. 21, North Central Forest Experiment Station (1976).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. W. Bowersox and W. W. Ward, Growth and yield of close-spaced young hybrid poplars, For. Sci. 22 (4), (1976) pp. 109–114.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. B. Crist and D. H. Dawson, Anatomy and dry weight yields of two populus clones grown under intensive culture, USDA Forest Service Res. Paper NC-113, North Central Forest Exp. Sta., St. Paul, Minn. (1975).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. S. Evans, Energy plantations: Should we grow trees for power plant fuel?, Can. For. Serv., Dept. Environ., Rep. VP-X-129, Vancouver, B.C. (1974).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. H. G. Smith, Biomass of some young red alder stands, in: IUFRO Biomass Studies (H. E. Young, ed.), Coll. of Life Sci. and Agr., University of Maine, Orono, Maine (1973).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. H. G. Smith and D. S. DeBell, Some effects of stand density on biomass of red alder, Can. J. For. Res. 4, 335–340 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. S. DeBeil, Potential productivity of dense young thickets of red alder, For. Res. Note No. 2, Crown Zellerbach Corp., Central Research, Camas, Wash. (1972).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Zavitkovski and R. D. Stevens, Primary productivity of red alder ecosystems, Ecology, 53 (2) (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. C. Franklin, and G. Meskimen, Wood properties of some eucalypts for the southern United States, in: Proceedings, 1975 National Convention, Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C. (1975).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative Progress in Eucalypt Research, Southern Forest Exp. Station, Olustee, Florida (1975).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W. H. Smith, L. E. Nelson, and G. L. Switzer, Development of the shoot system of young loblolly pine, II. Dry matter and nutrient accumulation, For. Sci. 17 (1), 55 (1971).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. L. Switzer and L. E. Nelson, Nutrient accumulation and nutrient cycling in loblolly pine plantation ecosystems: The first twenty years, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 143–147 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. C. Nemeth, Dry Matter Production and Site Factors in Young Loblolly Pine and Slash Pine Plantations, Ph.D. Diss., North Carolina State University, Department of Botany, Raleigh, N.C. (1972).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. W. Ralston, Annual primary productivity in a loblolly pine plantation, in: IUFRO Biomass Studies (H. E. Young, ed.), College of Life Sciences and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, Maine (1973).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. R. Harms and O. G. Langdon, Development of loblolly pine in dense stands, For. Sci. 22, 331 (1976).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Siren and G. Sivertsson, Survival and dry matter production of some high yield clones of salix and populus selected for forest industry and energy production, Royal Coll. For., Dep. Reforestation, Res. Note 83 Stockholm, Sweden (1976).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Eucalyptus Study Intracompany memo, Fort Bragg, Ga. (1976).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    G. C. Szego and C. C. Kemp, Energy forests and fuel plantations, Chem Tech, 3 (5): 275–284 (May 1973).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. A. Alich, Jr. and R. E. Inman, Effective Utilization of Solar Energy to Produce Clean Fuel, NSF/RANN/SE/GI/38723 Contract, SRI Project No. 2643, Menlo Park, Ca. (1974).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. L. Brown, Forests as energy sources in the year 2000: What man imagines, man can do, J. For. 74, 7 (1976).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. E. Inman, D. J. Salo, and B. J. McGurk, Silvicultural Biomass Farms, Vol. IV: Site-Specific Production Studies and Cost Analyses, MITRE Corporation/Metrek Division, MTR No. 7347 (1977).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Intertechnology/Solar Corporation, The Photosynthesis Energy Factory: Analysis, Synthesis and Demonstration, U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2548, Final Report, NTIS-HCP/T3548-01, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    D. W. Rose, Cost of producing energy from wood in intensive culture, J. Environ. Manage. 5, 1 (1976).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    T. W. Bowersox and W. W. Ward, Economic analysis of a short rotation Fiber production system for hybrid poplar, J. For. 74, 750 (1976).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    R. E. Lohrey, Site preparation improves survival and growth of direct seeded pines, U.S. Forest Service Research Note 50-185, Southern Forest Exp. Station, New Orleans, La. (1974).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    R. P. Schultz, Intensive culture of southern pines: Maximum yields or short rotations, Iowa State J. Res. 49 (3), 325 (1975).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. S. McKnight, Planting cottonwood cuttings for timber production in the south, U.S.D.A. Forest Service Res. Paper 50-60 (1970).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    D. S. deBell and J. C. Harms, Identification of cost factors associated with intensive culture of forest crops, Iowa State J. Res. 50 (3), 295 (1976).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. Hunt, Effects of Site Preparation on Planted Sweetgum, Sycamore and Loblolly Pine on Upland Sites, Third Year Measurement Report, International Paper Company, Southlands Experiment Forest, Bainbridge, Ga. (1975).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. J. Salo, J. F. Henry, and R. E. Inman, Design of a Pilot Silvicultural Biomass Farm at the Savannah River Plant, ERDA Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4101, MITRE Corporation/Metrek Division, MTR-7960 (1979).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. J. Salo, J. F. Henry, and A. W. DeAgazio, Pilot Silvicultural Biomass Farm Layout and Design—Comparative Energetic and Cost Assessment of Irrigation Alternatives at The Savannah River Plant, ERDA Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4101, MITRE Corporation/Metrek Division, MTR-79W00102 (1979).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hansen, E. A., in: Intensive Plantation Culture (Five Years Research), USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-21, North Central Forest Exp. Station (1976).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. R. Boyle, J. J. Phillips, and A. R. Ek, Whole tree harvesting: Nutrient budget evaluation, J. For. 71, 760 (1973).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. R. Boyle, Nutrients in relation to intensive culture of forest crops, Iowa State J. Res. 49 (3), pt2, 297 (1975).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. F. Henry, M. D. Fraser, W. B. Scholten, and C. W. Vail, Economics of energy crops on specific Northern California marginal crop lands, paper presented at the Fuels from Biomass Sympsoium, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, Ca. (August 3, 1977).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Inter Group Consulting Economists Ltd. Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources: Feasibility Study, Vol. C: Forest Studies, report prepared for the Government of Canada, Interdepartmental Steering Committee on Canadian Renewable Liquid Fuels, Winnipeg, Manitoba (1978).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    P. R. Blankenhorn, W. K. Murphey, and T. W. Bowersox, Energy Expended to Obtain Potentially Recoverable Energy from the Forests, Tappi Conference Papers, Forest Biology Wood Chemistry Conference, Madison, Wisconsin (June 20–22, 1977).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    E. S. Lipinsky, T. A. McClure, J. L. Otis, D. A. Scantland, and W. J. Sheppard, Systems Study of Fuels from Sugarcane, Sweet Sorghum, Sugar Beets and Corn, Vol. IV: Corn Agriculture, final Report, ERDA Contract No. W-7405-ENG-92, BMI-19574 A (Vol. IV) (March 31, 1977).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    D. Pimentel, Agricultural production: Resource needs and limitations, in: Transactions of the 40th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 1975, Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C. (1975).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Federal Energy Administration, Project Independence Blueprint (1974).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    D. J. Salo, R. E. Inman, B. J. McGurk, and J. Verhoeff, Silvicultural Biomass Farms, Volume III: Land Suitability and Availability, MITRE Corporation/Metrek Division, MTR 7347, McLean, Va. (1977).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    InterTechnology/Solar Corporation, Solar SNG: The Estimated Availability of Resources for Large Scale Production of SNG by Anaerobic Digestion of Specially Grown Plant Matter, Report No. 011075, American Gas Association, Project No. IU 114-1, Warrenton, Va. (1975).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. Didericksen, A. Hidlebaugh, and K. Schmede, Potential Cropland Study, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (1977).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    B. F. Malac, and R. D. Heeren, Hardwood plantation management, Southern J. Appl. For. 3 (1), 3 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Francois Henry
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Planning and Design CorporationHerndonUSA

Personalised recommendations