Judging from the literature and the many proposed schemes, great expectations exist regarding the recovery of useful items from residues—items which range from the lowly refillable container to the now highly prized energy sources, namely, the carbonaceous wastes. Whether or not the expectations will be realized with respect to energy from residues remains to be seen. Most likely, the realization will be somewhere between the extremes, i.e., between the trivial foreseen by the pessimist and the panacea predicted by the super-optimist. Regardless of position in the spectrum between extreme pessimism and superoptimism, the reality is that if all organic residues (euphemism for “wastes”) were converted into energy, the resulting output would fulfill about 5-10% of the nation’s total energy requirements. While these percentages may seem small, it should be remembered that any contribution, however small, has a significance.


Municipal Solid Waste Crop Residue Wood Residue Corn Stover Volatile Solid 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste Management Programs, Resource Recovery and Waste Reduction, Fourth Report to Congress, EPA Publication SW-600, US EPA, Washington (1974), p. 142.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. M. Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun, Water and Wastewater Engineering, Vol. 2: Water Purification and Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. D. Denit, Development Document for Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance for the Feedlots Point Source Category, EPA 440/1-73/004, Effluent Guidelines Division, Office of Air and Water Programs, U.S. EPA, Washington (1973).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. G. Bruns and J. W. Crowley, Solid Manure Handling for Livestock Housing, Feeding, and Yard Facilities in Wisconsin, Bulletin No. A2418, University Extension, University of Wisconsin (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. C. Loehr, Animal wastes: A national problem, J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 85, 181–221 (1969).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Academy of Sciences, Methane Generation from Human, Animal, and Agricultural Wastes, NAS, Washington, D.C. (1977), p. 131.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. L. Anderson, Energy Potential From Organic Wastes: A Review of the Quantities and Sources, Information Circular 8549, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C. (1972), p. 16.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. L. Meck, Guidelines for Manure Use and Disposal in the Western Region, Washington Research Center Bulletin 814 (1975).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. A. Schmid, Feedlot wastes to useful energy—fact or fiction, J. Environ. Eng. Div., ASCE, 101 (EES), Proc. Paper 1647:787–793 (October, 1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. D. Poole and R. H. Williams, Flower power: Prospects for photosynthetic energy, in: Toward a Solar Civilization (R. H. Williams, ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge (1978), pp. 145–168.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. M. Radovich, P. G. Risser, T. G. Shannon, C. F. Pomeroy, S. S. Sofer, and C. M. Sliepcevich, Evaluation of the Potential for Producing Liquid Fuels from Biomaterials, EPRI Report AF-974, Special Study Project TPS77-716, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto (January, 1979), p. 127.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. R. Beneman, Biofuels: A Survey, EPRI Report ER-746-SR, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto (June, 1978), p. 88.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. S. Luh and J. G. Woodroof, Commercial Vegetable Processing, The Avi Publishing Co., Westport (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. G. Woodroof and B. S. Luh, Commercial Fruit Processing, The Avi Publishing Co., Westport (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. M. Kohn, Hawaii: Alternative Energy Lab, Chem. Engineering, 86 (12), 86–90 (1979).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. B. Granthan, E. M. Estep, J. M. Pierovich, H. Tarkow, and T. C. Adams, Energy and Raw Material Potentials of Wood Residue in the Pacific Coast States, Forest Service, USDA, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon (1973), p. 52.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Howlett and A. Gamache, Silviculture Biomass Farms, IV: Forest and Mill Residues as a Potential Source of Biomass, Technical Report 7347, Georgia Pacific Corp., Mitre Corp. (May, 1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang Ying-Pe and R. A. Mitchell Chemical composition of common North American pulpwood barks, Tappi 38 (5), 315–320 (1955).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. R. Fryling, ed. Combustion Engineering, Combustion Engineering Inc., New York (1966).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. H. Ellis, The Role of Wood Residue in the National Energy picture, in: Wood Residue as an Energy Source, Forest Products Research Society Energy Workshop, Denver (September, 1976), p. 118.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. B. Grantham, Anticipated competition for available wood fuels in the United States, in: Fuels and Energy from Renewable Resources, (D. A. Tillman, K. V. Sarkanen, and L. L. Anderson, eds.) Academic Press, San Francisco (1977), pp. 55–91.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. J. Leman, Air pollution abatement applied to a boiler plant firing salt water soaked hogged fuel, in: Wood Residue as an Energy Source, Forest Products Research Society Energy Workshop, Denver (September, 1976), pp. 60–65.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. J. Auchter, Raw material supply, in: Future Technical Needs and Trends in the Paper Industry-II, Committee Assignment Report No. 64, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Inc., (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. G. MacDonald, ed. Pulp and Paper Manufacture, I: The Pulping of Wood, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1969).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis F. Diaz
    • 1
  • Clarence G. Golueke
    • 1
  1. 1.Cal Recovery Systems, Inc.RichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations