Expression of Plasma Cell-Associated Non-Light Chain Antigens in Patients with Plasma Cell Dyscrasia and Amyloidosis

  • Alex W. Tong
  • Jennifer C. Lee
  • Marvin J. Stone


In this study, we examined reactivity of the plasma cell-reactive monoclonal antibodies MM4 and PCA-1 with bone marrow and other tissue biopsies from patients with documented amyloidosis. Thirty-six biopsies (bone marrow, GI tract, gall bladder, rectum, peripheral nerve, heart, lung, kidney, liver, spleen, tongue, skin, muscle, and adrenal gland) from 17 patients were evaluated independently by standard histopathology. The presence of tissue amyloid was established by the finding of green birefrigence under polarized light after Congo red staining and/or characteristic fibrillar structure by electron microscopy. Cases studied included 13 patients with plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD) and 4 patients without evidence of an M-protein (non-PCD). Reactivity with MM4 or PCA-1 was established by the immunoperoxidase technique, based on comparison with a negative control (no primary monoclonal antibody) section from the same biopsy. MM4 and PCA-1 reacted with marrow plasma cells from the majority of these amyloid patients. In addition, a number of solid organ biopsies demonstrated positive staining with MMA or both monoclonal antibodies in areas of tissue amyloid deposits. Reactivity of either antibody with plasma cells and/or tissue amyloid was independent of light chain isotype. These observations suggest that plasma cells from patients with amyloidosis commonly express MM4-and PCA-1-reactive antigens, which also may be detected in certain tissue amyloid deposits. Further studies with these or similar reagents may help in understanding the pathogenesis of immunocytic amyloidosis.


Plasma Cell Amyloid Deposit Bone Marrow Biopsy Plasma Cell Dyscrasia Bence Jones Protein 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. G. Glenner, Amyloid deposits and amyloidosis, New Engl. J. Med. 302:1283, 1333 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. D. Gorevic, E. C. Franklin, Amyloidosis, Ann. Rev. Med. 32:261 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Isobe, E. F. Osserman, Patterns of amyloidosis and their association with plasma cell dyscrasia, monoclonal immunoglobulins and Bence Jones proteins, New Engl. J. Med. 290:473 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. J. Stone, E. P. Frenkel, The clinical spectrum of light chain myeloma. A study of 35 patients with special reference to the occurrence of amyloidosis, Am. J. Med. 58:601 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. J. Stone, Monoclonal gammopathies: Clinical aspects, in, “Pathology of Immunoglobulins: Diagnostic and Clinical Aspects. Protein Abnormalities, Vol. 2,” S. E. Ritzmann, ed., Academic Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. J. Stone, V. J. Hirsch, Splenic function in amyloidosis, in, “Amyloidosis,” G. G. Glenner, E. F. Osserman, E. P. Benditt, E. Calkins, A.S. Cohen, D. Zucker-Franklin, eds., Plenum, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Buxbaum, D. Hauser, Aberrant immunoglobulin synthesis in light chain amyloidosis, J. Clin. Invest. 78:798 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Merlini, M. Mastanduno, P. W. Moy, P. V. Hauschka, E. F. Osserman, Molecular heterogeneity and γ-carboxyglutamic acid content of Bence-Jones proteins: Possible relevance to amyloidogenicity, in, “Amyloidosis,” G. G. Glenner, E. F. Osserman, E. P. Benditt, E. Calkins, A. S. Cohen, D. Zucker-Franklin, eds., Plenum, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Solomon, Light chains of immunoglobulins: Structural-genetic correlates, Blood 68:603 (1986).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. S. Cohen, A. Rubinow, J. J. Anderson, M. Skinner, J. H. Mason, C. Libbey, H. Kayne, Survival of patients with primary (AL) amyloidosis. Colchicine-treated cases from 1976 to 1983 compared with cases seen in previous years (1961–1973), Am. J. Med. 82:1182 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. A. Laden, M. L. Cohen, R. A. Harley, Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis with extrapulmonary involvement, Human Pathol. 15:594 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. W. Tong, J. C. Lee, M. J. Stone, Characterization of a monoclonal antibody having selective reactivity with normal and neoplastic plasma cells, Blood 69:238 (1987).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. W. Tong, J. C. Lee, J. W. Fay, M. J. Stone, Elimination of clonogenic stem cells from human multiple myeloma cell lines by a plasma cell-reactive monoclonal antibody and complement, Blood 70 (in press), (1987).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. C. Anderson, M. P. Bates, B. L. Slaughenhoupt, G. S. Pinkus, S. F. Schlossman, L. M. Nadler, Expression of human B cell-associated antigens on leukemias and lymphomas: A model of human B cell differentiation, Blood 63:1424 (1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. W. Tong, J. C. Lee, M. J. Stone, Discrimination of human small cell and non-small cell lung tumors by a panel of monoclonal antibodies, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77:1023 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex W. Tong
    • 1
  • Jennifer C. Lee
    • 1
  • Marvin J. Stone
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Immunology Research Unit Charles A. Sammons Cancer CenterBaylor University Medical CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations