Immunostimulating Complex (ISCOM)
For almost two centuries vaccines have been based on whole micro-organisms, killed (inactivated) or attenuated. With increasing knowledge of the molecular composition of pathogenic micro-organisms and the function of different molecules, protective antigens also became identified. In spite of the fact that some of the early killed whole micro-organism vaccines proved to be effective there are several reasons why vaccines in the future should be formulated based on defined antigens, e.g.: (i) To avoid hazards due to toxicity or to genetic material which may cause replication, or as regards retroviruses the integration of viral genes into the infected hostcell genome. (ii) To limit the number of antigens in a vaccine in order to decrease the risk for induction autoimmune or allergic reactions. (iii) Further, reorganization of the prospective protective antigens may break a strategy for survival of the pathogen in the “hostile” immunological environment of the infected host.
KeywordsRespiratory Syncytial Virus Envelope Protein Measle Virus Bovine Leukemia Virus Subunit Vaccine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dalsgaard, K., 1978, A study of the isolation and characterization of the saponin Quil A. Evaluation of its adjuvant activity with special reference to the application in the vaccination of cattle against foot and mouth disease, Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl., 69: 1.Google Scholar
- De Vries, P., Van Binnendijk, R.S., Van der Marel, P., Van Wesel, A.L., Voorma, H.O., Sundquist, B., Uyt de Haag, F.G.C.M. and Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., 1988, Measles virus fusion protein presented in an immunestimulating complex (iscom) induces haemolysis-inhibiting and fusion inhibiting antibodies, virus-specific T cells and protection in mice, J.Gen.Virol., 69: 549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Höglund, S., Dalsgaard, K., Lövgren, K., Sundquist, B., Osterhaus, A. and Morein, B., Iscoms and immunostimulation with viral antigens, Subcell. Biochem., in press.Google Scholar
- Höglund, S., Ozel, M., Gelderblom, H., Akerblom, L., Villacres, M. and Morein, B., 1988, A construct of iscom of HIV antigens: structural and immunological function, Proc. Int. Conf. AIDS, Stockholm.Google Scholar
- Merza, M.S., Linne, T., Hoglund, S., Morein, B., Portetelle, D. and Burny, A., Bovine leukemia virus iscoms: biochemical characterization, Vaccine, in press.Google Scholar
- Morgan, A.J., Finerty, S., Lövgren, K., Scullion, F.T. and Morein, B., 1988, Prevention of Epstein-Barr (EB) virus induced lymphoma in cottontop tamarins by vaccination with the EB virus envelope glycoprotein gp340 incorporated into immune-stimulating complexes, J. gen. Virol., 69: 2093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Speijers, G.J.A., Danse, L.H.J.C., Beuvery, J.J.T.W., Strik, A. and Vos, J.G., 1987, Local reactions of the Saponin Quil A and a Quil A containing iscom measles vaccine after intramuscular injection of rats: a comparison with the effect of DPT-polio vaccine, Fund.Appl. Toxicol., 10: 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Trudel, M., Nadon, F., Séguin, C., Simard, C. and Lussier, G., Experimental polyvalent iscoms subunit vaccine based on the fusion protein induces antibodies that neutralize human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Vaccine, in press.Google Scholar