Nonionic Block Copolymer Surfactants as Immunological Adjuvants: Mechanisms of Action and Novel Formulations
Modern molecular biology has provided us with the ability to produce custom tailored antigens with an ease undreamed of a few years ago. However, experience has also shown that most nonreplicating purified subunit antigens are weak immunogens that will require immunopotentiation to become the hoped for effective vaccines of the future. The dominant paradigm of modern immunology is that immunogenicity and immune responses are controlled by specific interactions between various ligands and their receptors. From our perspective, producing effective adjuvants for subunit vaccines will require looking beyond this paradigm to a consideration of nonspecific physicochemical factors which subtly but powerfully influence immune responses.
KeywordsBlock Copolymer Surface Active Agent Peritoneal Exudate Cell Adjuvant Activity Antigen Molecule
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