Liposomes as Carriers of Vaccines: Development of a Liposomal Malaria Vaccine

  • Carl R. Alving
  • Robert L. Richards
  • Michael D. Hayre
  • Wayne T. Hockmeyer
  • Robert A. Wirtz
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 179)


Liposomes that have been injected parenterally into animals have a well-known natural tendency to be ingested rapidly and in large amounts by macrophages. Uptake of liposomes by macrophages has often been cited as a potential hurdle that could theoretically block applications of liposomes as drug carriers for certain purposes. However, the macrophage itself has served as a target for delivery of liposome-encapsulated drugs and immunomodulators, particularly for treatment of infectious diseases and cancer (Alving, 1983, 1989; Fidler, 1985; Swenson et al, 1988). It is certainly true that overcoming of the macrophage as an “obstacle” can be difficult, but several reports have indicated that increased blood circulation time and distribution of liposomes to certain tissues can be achieved by the use of special biophysically or biochemically tailored liposomes (Hwang et al, 1980; Gregoriadis et al, 1982; Allen and Chonn, 1987; Papahadjopoulos and Gabizon, 1987; Gabizon and Papahadjopoulos, 1988).


Plasmodium Falciparum Humoral Immune Response Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria Initial Immunization Bovine Serum Albumin Conjugate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl R. Alving
    • 1
  • Robert L. Richards
    • 1
  • Michael D. Hayre
    • 1
  • Wayne T. Hockmeyer
    • 2
  • Robert A. Wirtz
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Membrane BiochemistryWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA
  2. 2.Departments of ImmunologyWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA
  3. 3.Departments of EntomologyWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA

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