Antigens and Adjuvants for a New Generation of Vaccines
More than a decade has passed since vaccination made possible the global eradication of smallpox. Vaccination has also been remarkably successful in reducing morbidity and mortality due to yellow fever virus in Africa as well as Central and South America. These vaccines, as well as the vaccines developed after the last World War against measles and rubella, contain live attenuated viruses. While there is no question about the efficacy of such vaccines and their safety in the great majority of recipients, they can produce encephalitis or other complications in humans with immunodeficiency. Many persons in developing countries are immuno-deficient because of infections and poor nutrition (Dowd and Heatley, 1984). The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in parts of Africa is now recognized. Live bacterial vaccines, e.g. Mycobacterium bovis BCG, can also produce generalized infections in immunocompromised persons. Hence the desirability of developing vaccines based on inactivated viruses or bacteria, or purified antigens, is generally recognized. The question is whether such development is feasible: there is still a widespread belief that only living vaccines can elicit cell-mediated immunity and protection against some infections.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Anterior Uveitis Pertussis Vaccine Follicular Dendritic Cell Bordetella Pertussis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Allison, A.C., 1980, Immune responses to polyoma virus and polyoma virus-induced tumors, in: “Viral Oncology”, G. Klein, ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Allison, A.C., 1988, The role of monocytes, macrophages, Langerhans cells and follicular dendritic cells in persistent virus infections, in: “Persistent Virus Infections”, C. Lopez and H. Margolis, eds., Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
- Arden, N.H., Patriarca, P.A. and Kendal, A.P., 1986, Experiences in the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes, in: “Options for Control of Influenza”, A.P. Kendal and P.A. Patriarca, eds., Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
- Bloch, H., 1955, Virulence of mycobacteria, Adv.Tuberc.Res., 6: 49.Google Scholar
- Davies, P. and Allison, A.C., 1976, Secretion of macrophage enzymes in relation to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, in: “Immunobiology of the Macrophage”, D.S. Nelson, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Gauldie, J., Richards, C., Harnish, D., Lansdorf, P. and Baumann, H., 1987, Interferon β2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute-phase response in liver cells, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA, 84: 7251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayward, A.J., 1982, Immunodeficiency, in: “Clinical Aspects of Immunology”, P.J. Lachmann and D.K. Peters, eds., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2: 1658, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Kenney, J.S., Hughes, B.W., Masada, M. and Allison, A.C., 1989, Evaluation of adjuvants for the production of murine monoclonal antibodies, J. Immunol.Methods (in press).Google Scholar
- Lehman, D.A. and Coffman, R.L., 1988, The effects of IL-4 and IL-5 on the IgA response by murine Peyer’s patch B cell subpopulations, J. Immunol., 141: 2050.Google Scholar
- Letvin, N.L., Daniel, M.D., King, N.W., Kiyotaki, M., Kannagi, N., Chalifoux, L.V., Sehgal, P.K., Desrosiers, R.C., Arthur, L.O. and Allison, A.C., 1987, AIDS-like disease in macaques induced by simian immunodeficiency virus: a vaccine trial, in: “Vaccines”, R.M. Chanock, R.A. Lener, F. Braun and H.S. Ginasky, eds., Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, K.G., Tyrrell, D.A.J., Harrison, P., Potter, C.W., Jennings, R.Google Scholar
- Valenzuela, P., Medina, A., Rutter, W.J., Annerer, A. and Hall, B.D., 1983, Synthesis and assembly of hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles in yeast, Nature, 291: 503.Google Scholar