Steady-state process simulation is used routinely in the evaluation, selection, and design of new processes (Biegler, 1989). In the past, all the pertinent design factors could be addressed with steady-state programs. Today, however, there are new factors to be considered, and some of these have more to do with the operation and control of the plant than with steady-state aspects. For example, product quality demands, increasing safety concerns, stringent environmental requirements, process flexibility, minimization of capital expenditure through process simplification and integration, and elimination of overdesign are all important factors that tend to influence process operations. However, the operational aspect of process design is difficult or impossible to glean from steady-state simulations, and we must, therefore, consider dynamic simulations for answers.
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