Starved and Nonculturable Microorganisms in Biofilms

  • Kevin C. Marshall


Casual observation of most solid surfaces immersed in aqueous environments reveals the presence of a slimy layer developing on the surfaces. These slimes, termed biofilms, form on exposed surfaces as a result of bacterial adhesion to, followed by growth and exopolymer production at, the solid-liquid interface (26, 28, 60, 67). The numbers and types of bacteria per unit volume of biofilm in different environments vary considerably, depending on factors such as the nature of the substratum, the trophic level of the aqueous phase, the flow rate, and the degree of turbulence (22). The complex communities of microorganisms found in biofilms ensure that these systems play a major role in microbially catalyzed reactions in natural environments, particularly in the degradation of organic molecules and in nitrification and other mineral transformation processes. Some of the most intensively studied biofilms, in terms of their structure, biology, and biogeochemistry, are the microbial mats found in shallow submerged or intermittently exposed littoral marine areas (25, 36, 97).


Bacterial Adhesion Adenylate Energy Charge Total Artificial Heart VBNC State VBNC Cell 
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Copyright information

© ASM Press, Washington, D.C. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin C. Marshall
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Microbiology and ImmunologyThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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