Advertisement

Interactions with the Immune System

  • Mauro Bendinelli
  • Pier Giulio Conaldi
  • Donatella Matteucci
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

For many years, coxsackieviruses (CV) and other enteroviruses have been considered relatively unsophisticated pathogens. They were believed to produce acute infections only and to induce tissue damage and disease exclusively by causing lysis of infected target cells. This contention was based on consistent observations showing that, provided cells are susceptible to infection, CV dramatically damaged or destroyed them, owing to a rapid and virtually complete virus-mediated shutoff of protein synthesis followed by cell lysis in a few hours. Accordingly, necrotic lesions in target organs, such as central nervous system (CNS), pancreas, liver, and myocardium, were viewed solely as the result of local viral replication and cytopathic effect produced by the infecting CV, while immune responses were considered to play only a protective role.

Keywords

Spleen Cell Infected Mouse Peritoneal Exudate Cell CVB3 Infection Recurrent Pericarditis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rager-Zisman, B., and Allison, A. C., 1973, The role of antibody and host cells in the resistance of mice against infection by Coxsackie B-3 virus,J. Gen. Virol. 19:329–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woodruff, J. F., 1979, Lack of correlation between neutralizing antibody production and suppression of coxsackievirus B-3 replication in target organs: Evidence for involvement of mononuclear inflammatory cells in host defences,J. Immunol. 123:31 – 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Costanzo-Nordin, M. R., Reap, E. A., O’Connell, J. B., Robinson, J. A., and Scanlon, P. J., 1985, A nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug exacerbates Coxsackie B-3 murine myocarditis,J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 6:1078–1082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kabiri, M., and Hadaegh, M. D., 1977, Interaction of coxsackievirus B3 and peritoneal exudate cells of adult mice treated with cyclophosphamide,J. Med. Virol. 1:183–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Denman, A. M., Rager-Zisman, B., Merigan, T. C., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., 1974, Replication or inactivation of different viruses by human lymphocyte preparations, Infect. Immun. 9:373–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loria, R. M., Kibrik, S., and Broitman, S. A., 1974, Peroral infection with group B coxsackievirus in the adult mouse: Protective functions of gut,J. Infect. Dis. 130:539–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Godeny, E. K., and Gauntt, C. J., 1986, Involvement of natural killer cells in coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis,J. Immunol. 137:1695–1702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyöty, H., Huupponen, T., Kotola, L., and Leinikki, P., 1986, Humoral immunity against viral antigens in type 1 diabetes: Altered IgA-class immune response against Coxsackie B4 virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. Sect. C 94:83–88.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Welliver, R. C., Drucker, M. M., and Ogra, P. L., 1982, Immunology of enteroviruses, in: Comprehensive Immunology—Immunology of Human Infection. Part II: Viruses and Parasites; Immunodiagnosis and Prevention of Infectious Disease (A. J. Nahmias and R. J. O’Reilly, eds.), pp. 185–203, Plenum Medical, New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bell, E. J., and McCartney, R. A., 1984, A study of Coxsackie B virus infections, 1972–1983,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 93:197–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tilzey, A. J., Signy, M., and Banatvala, J. E., 1986, Persistent Coxsackie B virus specific IgM response in patients with recurrent pericarditis, Lancet 1:1491–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolfgram, L. J., Beisel, K. W., Herskowitz, A., and Rose, N. R., 1986, Variations in the susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis among different strains of mice,J. Immunol. 136:1846–1852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schernthaner, G., Banatvala, J. E., Scherbaum, W., Bryant, J., Borkenstein, M., Schober, E., and Mayr, W. R., 1985, Coxsackie-B-virus-specific IgM responses, complement-fixing islet-cell antibodies, HLA DR antigens, and C-peptide secretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Lancet 2:630–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schnurr, D. P., Cao, Y., and Schmidt, N. J., 1984, Coxsackievirus B3 persistence and myocarditis in N:NIH(S) II nu/nu mice,J. Gen. Virol. 65:1197–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N. J., 1984, Coxsackievirus B3 persistence and myocarditis in NFR nu/nu and +/nu mice, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 173:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hashimoto, I., Tatsumi, M., and Nakagawa, M., 1983, The role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of Coxsackie virus B3 heart disease, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 64:497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robinson, J. A., O’Connell, J. B., Roeges, L. M., Major, E. O., and Gunnar, R. M., 1981, Coxsackie B3 myocarditis in athymic mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 166:80–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woodruff, J. F., and Woodruff, J. J., 1974, Involvement of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of Coxsackie virus B3 heart-disease,J. Immunol. 113:1726–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cao, Y., Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Monoclonal antibodies for study of antigenic variation in coxsackievirus type B4: Association of antigenic determinants with myocarditic properties of the virus,J. Gen. Virol. 65:925–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Griffith, J. S., Katz, S. L., and Moore, M., 1977, Persistent enterovirus infections in agammaglobulinemia, in: Microbiology—1977 (D. Schlessinger, ed.), pp. 488–493, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Johnson, J. P., Yolken, R. H., Goodman, D., Winkelstein, J. A., and Nagel, J. E., 1982, Prolonged excretion of group A coxsackievirus in an infant with agammaglobulinemia,J. Infect. Dis. 146:712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Woodruff, J. F, and Woodruff, J. J., 1971, Modification of severe coxsackievirus B3 infection in marasmic mice by transfer of immune lymphoid cells, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68:2108–2111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cho, C. T., Feng, K. K., McCarthy, V. P., and Lenahan, M. F., 1982, Role of antiviral antibodies in resistance against coxsackievirus B3 infection: Interaction between preexisting antibodies and an interferon inducer, Infect. Immun. 37:720–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kogon, A., Spigland, I., Frothingham, T. E., Elveback, L., Williams, C., Hall, C. E., and Fox, J. P., 1969, The Virus Watch Program: A continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. VII. Observations on viral excretion, seroimmunity, intrafamilial spread and illness association in Coxsackie and echovirus infections, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gauntt, C. J., Paque, R. E, Trousdale, M. D., Gudvangen, R. J., Barr, D. T., Lipotich, G. J., Nealon, T. J., and Duffey, P. S., 1983, Temperature-sensitive mutant of coxsackievirus B3 establishes resistance in neonatal mice that protects them during adolescence against coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, Infect. Immun. 39:851–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sun, S.-C., Burch, G. E., Sohal, R. J., and Chu, K.-C., 1967, Coxsackie B4 viral nephritis in mice and its autoimmune-like phenomenon, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126:882–885.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maisch, B., Trostel-Soeder, R., Stechemesser, F., Berg, P. A., and Kochsiek, K., 1982, Diagnostic relevance of humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions in patients with acute viral myocarditis, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 48:533–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saegusa, J., Prabhakar, B. S., Essani, K., McClintock, P. R., Fukuda, Y., Ferrans, V.J., and Notkins, A. L., 1986, Monoclonal antibody to coxsackievirus B4 reacts with myocardium,J. Infect. Dis. 153:372–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bruserad, G., Stevensen, M., and Thorsby, E., 1985, T lymphocyte responses to coxsackie B4 and mumps virus. II. Immunoregulation by HLA-DR3 and DR4 associated restriction elements, Tissue Antigens 26:179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Paque, R. E., Gauntt, C. J., Nealon, T. J., and Trousdale, M. D., 1978, Assessment of cell-mediated hypersensitivity against coxsackievirus B3 viral induced myocarditis utilizing hypertonic salt-extracts of cardiac tissue, J. Immunol. 120:1672–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paque, R. E., Gauntt, C. J., and Nealon, T. J., 1981, Assessment of cell-mediated immunity against coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in a primate model (Papio papio), Infect. Immun. 31:470–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Woodruff, J. F., 1980, Viral myocarditis, Am. J. Pathol. 101:426–479.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huber, S. A., Job, L. P., and Auld, K. R., 1982, Influence of sex hormones on Coxsackie B-3 virus infection in Balb/c mice, Cell. Immunol. 67:173–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Job, L. P., Lyden, D. C., and Huber, S. A., 1986, Demonstration of suppressor cells in coxsackievirus group B, type 3 infected female Balb/c mice which prevent myocarditis, Cell Immunol. 98:104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khatib, R., Khatib, G., Chason, J. L., and Lerner, A. M., 1983, Alterations in coxsackievirus B4 heart muscle disease in ICR Swiss mice by anti-thymocyte serum,J. Gen. Virol. 64:231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O’Connell, J. B., Reap, E. A., and Robinson, J. A., 1986, The effects of cyclosporine on acute murine Coxsackie B3 myocarditis, Circulation 73:353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gudvangen, R. J., Duffey, P. S., Paque, R. E, and Gauntt, C. J., 1983, Levamisole exacerbates coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis, Infect. Immun. 41:1157–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lutton, C. W., and Gauntt, C. J., 1986, Coxsackievirus B3 infection alters plasma membrane of neonatal skin fibroblasts,J. Virol. 60:294–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lutton, C. W., Gudvangen, R. J., Nealon, T. J., Paque, R. E, and Gauntt, C. J., 1985, Cellular immune responses in mice challenged with an amyocarditic variant of coxsackievirus B3,J. Med. Virol. 17:345–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Huber, S. A., and Lodge, P. A., 1986, Coxsackievirus B-3 myocarditis. Identification of different pathogenic mechanism in DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, Am. J. Pathol. 122:284–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Friedman, H., Bendinelli, M., and Specter, S. (eds.), 1987, Handbook on Viral Immunosuppression, Dekker, New York, (in press).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matteucci, D., Paglianti, M., Giangregorio, A. M., Capobianchi, M. R., Dianzani, F., and Bendinelli, M., 1985, Group B coxsackieviruses readily establish persistent infections in human lymphoid cell lines, J. Virol. 56:651–654.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Matteucci, D., Toniolo, A., Conaldi, P. G., Basolo, F., Gori, Z., and Bendinelli, M., 1985, Systemic lymphoid atrophy in coxsackievirus B3-infected mice: Effects of virus and immunopotentiating agents,J. Infect. Dis. 151.1100–1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gauntt, C. J., Trousdale, M. D., LaBadie, D. R. L., Paque, R. E., and Nealon, T., 1979, Properties of coxsackievirus B3 variants which are amyocarditic or myocarditic for mice,J. Med. Virol. 3:207–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Belardelli, F., Vignaux, F., Proietti, E., and Gresser, I., 1984, Injection of mice with antibody to interferon renders peritoneal macrophages permissive for vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:602–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bendinelli, M., Ruschi, A., Campa, M., and Toniolo, A., 1975, Depression of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by coxsackieviruses in mice, Experientia 31:1227–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bendinelli, M., Matteucci, D., Toniolo, A., Patané, A. M., and Pistillo, M. P., 1982, Impairment of immunocompetent mouse spleen cell functions by infection with coxsackievirus B3,J. Infect. Dis. 146:797–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Young, N. A., 1979, Coxsackievirus and echovirus, in: Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease, Vol. II (G. L. Mandell, R. G. Douglas, and J. E. Bennett, eds.), pp. 1104–1120, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kirkpatrick, C. J., Bültmann, B. D., and Gruler, H., 1985, Interaction between enteroviruses and human endothelial cells in vitro. Alterations in the physical properties of endothelial cells plasma membrane and adhesion of human granulocytes, Am. J. Pathol. 118:15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gururaj, V. J., Marsh, W. W., and Aiyar, S. R., 1984, Fulminant pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in association with Coxsackie B4 infection, Clin. Pediatr. 24:406–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gomez, M. P., Reyes, M. P., Smith, F., Ho, L. K., and Lerner, A. M., 1980, Coxsackievirus B3-positive mononuclear leukocytes in peripheral blood of Swiss and athymic mice during infection, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 165:107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Bendinelli
    • 1
  • Pier Giulio Conaldi
    • 1
  • Donatella Matteucci
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Epidemiology, Hygiene and VirologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations