• G. Hammond
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


As a member of the enterovirus group within the Picornaviridae family, the epidemiology of coxsackievirus (CV) is similar to that of other enteroviruses. The update on CV epidemiology is discussed under the mechanisms of virus transmission, followed by factors that have been observed to influence the distribution of CV infections. Information is also presented on CV infections in the family, in institutions, and on geographical trends of CV infections.


Enterovirus Infection Susceptible Person Infectious Gastroenteritis Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit Poliovirus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kogon, A., Spigland, I., Frothingham, T. E., Elveback, L., Williams, C., Hall, C. E., and Fox, J. P., 1969, The virus watch program: A continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. VII. Observations on viral excretion, seroimmunity, intrafamilial spread and illness association in Coxsackie and echovirus infections, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaplan, M. H., Klein, S. W., McPhee, J., and Harper, R. G., 1983, Group B coxsackievirus infections in infants younger than three months of age: A serious childhood illness, Rev. Infect. Dis. 5:101–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jenista, J. A., Powell, K. R., and Menegus, M. A., 1984, Epidemiology of neonatal enterovirus infection,J.Pediatr. 104:685–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moore, M., 1982, Enteroviral disease in the United States. 1970–1979,J. Infect. Dis. 146:103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lau, R. C. H., 1983, Coxsackie B virus infections in New Zealand patients with cardiac and non-cardiac diseases,J. Med. Virol. 11:131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gelfand, H. M., and Holquin, A. H., 1962, Enterovirus infections in healthy children. Study during 1960, Arch. Environ. Health. 5:404–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moore, M., Kaplan, M. H., McPhee, J., Bregman, D. J., and Klein, S. W., 1984, Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features of Coxsackie B1–B5 infections in the United States, 1970–1979, Public Health Rep. 99:515–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strikas, R. A., Anderson, L. J., and Parker, R. A., 1986, Temporal and geographic patterns of isolates of nonpolio enterovirus in the United States, 1970–1983,J. Infect. Dis. 153:346–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prabhakar, B. S., Hospel, M. V., McClintock, P. R., and Notkins, A. L., 1982, High frequency of antigenic variants among naturally occurring human Coxsackie B4 virus isolates identified by monoclonal antibodies, Nature (Lond.) 300:374–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson, R. M., and May, R. M., 1985, Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases, Nature (Lond.) 318:323–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yorke, J. A., Nathanson, N., Pianigianti, G., and Martin, J., 1979, Seasonality and the requirements for perpetuation and eradication of viruses in populations, Am. J. Epidemiol. 109:103–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Townsend, T. R., Bolyard, E. A., Yolken, R. H., Beschorner, W. E., Bishop, C. A., Burns, W. H., Santos, G. W., and R. Soral, 1982, Outbreak of Coxsackie Al gastroenteritis: A complication of bone-marrow transplantation, Lancet 1:820–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yolken, R. H., Bishop, C. A., Townsend, T. R., Bolyard, E. A., Bartlett, J., Santos, G. W., and Sarai, R., 1982, Infectious gastroenteritis in bone-marrow-transplant recipients, N. Engl. J. Med. 306:1009–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson, I., Hammond, G. W., and Verma, M. R., 1985, Nosocomial Coxsackie B4 virus infections in two chronic-care pediatric neurological wards, J. Infect. Dis. 151:1153–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Drulak, M., Wallbank, N. M., Lebtag, I., Werboski, L., and Poffenroth, L., 1978, The relative effectiveness of commonly used disinfectants in inactivation of coxsackievirus B5,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 81:389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kinney, J. S., McCray, E., Kaplan, J. E., Low, D. E., Hammond, G. W., Harding, G., Pinsky, P. F., Davi, M. J., Kovnats, S. F., Riben, P., Martone, W. J., Schonberger, L. B., and Anderson, L. J., 1986, Risk factors associated with echovirus 11’ infection in a hospital nursery, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5:192–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Valenti, W. M., Hruska, J. F., Menegus, M. A., and Freeburn, M. J., 1981, Nosocomial viral infection. III. Guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis viruses, picornaviruses and uncommonly seen viruses, Infect. Control 2:38–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sato, N., Sato, H., Kawana, R., and Matumoto, M., 1972, Ecological behaviour of 6 Coxsackie B and 29 echo serotypes as revealed by serological survey of general population in Aomori, Japan, Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 25:355–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hammond, G. W., Lukes, H., Wells, B., Thompson, L., Low, D. E., and Cheang, M., 1985, Maternal and neonatal neutralizing antibody titers to selected enteroviruses, Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4:32–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grist, N. R., Bell, E. J., and Assaad, F., 1978, Enteroviruses in human disease, Prog. Med. Virol. 24:114–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Froeschle, J. E., Feorino, P. M., and Gelf, H. M., 1966, A continuing surveillance of enterovirus infection in healthy children in six United States cities. II. Surveillance enterovirus isolates 1960–1963 and comparison with enterovirus isolates from cases of acute central nervous system disease, Am. J. Epidemiol. 83:455–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nelson, D., Hiemstra, H., Minor, T., and D’Alessio, D., 1979, Non-polio enterovirus activity in Wisconsin based on a 20-year experience in a diagnostic virology laboratory, Am. J. Epidemiol. 109:352–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schoub, B. D., Johnson, S., McAnerney, J. M., Dos Santos, I. L., and Klaassen, K. I. M., 1985, Epidemic Coxsackie B virus infection in Johannesburg, South Africa,J. Hyg. (Camb.) 95:447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pallansch, M. A., and Freeman, C. Y., 1987, Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among Coxsackie B virus isolates and identification of conserved sequences as targets for pan-enterovirus oligonucleotide probes, Abstract R16.25 from the VIIth International Virology Congress, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Aug. 10–14, 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Hammond
    • 1
  1. 1.Cadham Provincial LaboratoryWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations