Persistent Infections

  • David P. Schnurr
  • Nathalie J. Schmidt
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Experimental persistent viral infections in vitro in cell cultures and in vivo in animal models are of considerable practical and theoretical interest in exploring possible mechanisms for viral persistence and pathogenesis in the human host. Human enteroviruses, including the group B coxsackievirus (CVB), are important pathogens generally thought of as being highly lytic viruses that are unlikely to establish persistent infections. Reports of CVB persistence in HeLa cells appeared during the 1960s1,2 and in human fetal diploid (HFD) cells in 19733; and more recently, a number of laboratories have observed CVB persistence both in vitro in various types of cell cultures4–7 and in vivo in the mouse model.8–10 These persistent infections could be useful as models for chronic disease, as they include infection of human heart fibroblasts,5 rat pancreatic cells,4 human lymphocytes,6 and mouse skin fibroblasts7 in vitro and mouse heart,8,9 spleen,10 and pancreatic10 cells in vivo.


Persistent Infection Mouse Cell Infectious Virus Defective Interfere Infectious Progeny 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Crowell, R. L., 1963, Specific viral interference in HeLa cell cultures chronically infected with coxsackievirus B5 virus, J. Bacteriol. 86:517–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crowell, R. L., and Syverton, J. T., 1961, The mammalian-cell-virus relationship. VI. Sustained infection of HeLa cells by Coxsackie B-3 virus and effect on superinfection, J. Exp. Med. 113:419–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maverakis, N. H., Schmidt, N. J., Riggs, J. L., and Lennette, E. H., 1973, Carrier cultures of human fetal diploid cells infected with coxsackievirus type B2, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 43:289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frank, J. A., Schmidt, E. V., Smith, R. E., and Wilfert, C. M., 1986, Persistent infection of rat insulinoma cells with Coxsackie B4 virus, Arch. Virol. 87:143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kandolf, R., and Hofschneider, P. H., 1984, Effect of interferon on the replication of Coxsackie B3 virus in cultured human fetal heart cells, in: Viral Heart Disease (H.-D. Boite ed.), pp. 57–63, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matteucci, D., Paglianti, M., Giangregorio, A. M., Capobianchi, M. R., Dianjani, F., and Bendinelli, M., 1985, Group B coxsackievirus readily establish persistent infections in human lymphoid cell lines, J. Virol. 56:651–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Persistent infection of mouse fibroblasts with coxsackievirus, Arch. Virol. 81:91–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Coxsackievirus B3 persistence and myocarditis in NFR nu/nu and PL/nu mice, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 173:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schnurr, D. P., Cao, Y., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Coxsackievirus B3 persistence and myocarditis in N: NIH(S) II nu/nu and +/nu mice, J. Gen. Virol. 65:1197–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bocharov, E. V., and Shalaurova, B. V., 1984, Persistence of Coxsackie B1 virus in BALB/c mice, Acta Virol. 28:345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Youngner, J. S., and Preble, O. T., 1980, Viral persistence: Evolution of viral populations, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 19 (H. Frankel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner eds.), pp. 73–135, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cole, C. N., Smoler, D., Wimmer, E., and Baltimore, D., 1971, Defective interfering particles of poliovirus. I. Isolation and physical properties, J. Virol. 7:478–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gibson, J. P., and Righthand, F., 1985, Persistence of echovirus 6 in cloned human cells, J. Virol. 54:219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vallbracht, A., Hofmann, L., Wurster, K. G., and Flehmig, B., 1984, Persistent infection of human fibroblasts by hepatitis A virus, J. Gen. Virol. 65:609–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang, A. S., 1973, Defective interfering viruses, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 27:101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schaffer, F. L., and Gorden, M., 1966, Differential inhibitory effects of actinomycin D among strains of poliovirus, J. Bacteriol. 91:2309–2316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morrow, C. D., Gibbons, G. F., and Dasgupta, A., 1985, The host protein required for in vitro replication of poliovirus is a protein kinase that phosphorylates eucaryotic initiation factor-2, Cell 40:913–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dasgupta, A., Zabel, P., and Baltimore, D., 1980, Dependence of the activity of poliovirus replicase DNA or host cell protein, Cell 19:423–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilfert, C. M., Buckley, R., Rosen, F. S., Whisnent, J., Oxman, M. N., Griffith, J. F., Katz, S. L., and Moore, M., 1977, Persistent enterovirus infections in agammaglobulinemia, in: Microbiology-1977. (D. S. Schlessinger ed.), pp. 488–493, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Woodruff, J. F., 1981, Viral myocarditis. Amer. J. Pathol. 101:425–483.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Southern, P., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1986, Medical consequences of persistent infection, New Eng. J. Med. 314:359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oldstone, M. B. A., Southern, P., Rodriguez, M., and Rampert, M., 1984, Virus persists in B cells of islets of Langerhans and is associated with chemical manifestations of diabetes, Science 224:1440–1443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bendinelli, M., Matteucci, D., Toniolo, A., Patane, A. M., and Pistillo, M. P., 1982, Impairment of immunocompetent mouse spleen cell functions by infection with coxsackievirus B-3, J. Infec. Dis. 146:797–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matteucci, D., Toniolo, A., Conaldi, P. G., Basolo, F., Gori, Z., and Bendinelli, M., 1985, Systemic lymphoid atrophy in Coxsackie B-3 infected mice: Effects of virus and immunopotentiating agents, J. Infec. Dis. 151:1100–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ying-Zhen, Y., and Dyke, J. W., 1985, Coxsackie B-2 virus infection in rat beating heart cell culture, J. Virol. Meth. 12:217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huber, S. A., Job, L. P., and Woodruff, J. F., 1980, Lysis of infected myofibers by coxsackievirus B-3 immune T lymphocytes, Amer. J. Pathol. 98:681–694.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowles, N. E., Olsen, E. G. J., Richardson, P. J., and Archard, L. C., 1986, Detection of coxsackie-B-virus-speciflc RNA sequences in myocardial biopsy samples for patients with myocarditis and dialated cardiomyopathy, Lancet 1:1120–1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • David P. Schnurr
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nathalie J. Schmidt
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Medical TechnologySan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Division of LaboratoriesCalifornia State Department of Health ServicesBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations