The Possible Role of Viral Variants in Pathogenesis

  • Charles J. Gauntt
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Many different kinds of coxsackievirus (CV) variants have been described and studied with the goal of trying to relate a set of characteristics of a given variant to its pathogenicity in cell cultures or in animal models. In reading about studies about a particular variant, one must remember that any virus stock represents a genotypically heterogeneous population from which phenotypic expression of a dominant variant(s) is observed and measured. Murine models of CV diseases offer exciting possibilities for determining the molecular basis of virulence in these viruses.


Viral Variant Japanese Encephalitis Virus Coxsackie Virus Poliovirus Type Adolescent Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Holland, J., Spindler, K., Horodyski, F., Grabau, B., Nichol, S., and Vandepol, S., 1982, Rapid evolution of RNA genomes, Science 215:1577–1585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prabhakar, B. S., Haspel, M. V., McClintock, P. R., and Notkins, A. L., 1982, High frequency of antigenic variants among naturally occurring human Coxsackie B4 virus isolates identified by monoclonal antibodies. Nature 300:374–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Prabhakar, B. S., Menegus, M. A., and Notkins, A. L., 1985, Detection of conserved and nonconserved epitopes on coxsackievirus B4; Frequency of antigenic change, Virology 146:302–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sobrino, F., Dávilla, M., Ortin, J., and Domingo, E., 1983, Multiple genetic variants arise in the course of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture, Virology 128:310–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parvin, J. D., Moscona, A., Pan, W. T., Leider, J. M., and Palese, P., 1986, Measurement of the mutation rates of animal viruses: Influenza A virus and poliovirus type 1, J. Virol 59:377–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang, A. S., 1973, Defective interferring particles, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 27:101–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rueckert, R. R., 1986, Picornaviruses and their replication, in: Fundamental Virology (B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, R. M. Chanock, J. L. Melnick, B. Roizman, and R. E. Shope, eds.), pp. 357–390, Raven, New York.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minor, P. D., John, A., Ferguson, M., and Icenogle, J. P., 1986, Antigenic and molecular evolution of the vaccine strain of type 3 poliovirus during the period of excretion by a primary vaccinee, J. Gen. Virol. 67:693–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kew, O., and Nottay, B., 1984, Evolution of the oral polio vaccine strains in humans occurs by both mutation and intramolecular recombination, in: Modern Approaches to Vaccines (R. Channock and R. Lerner, eds.), pp. 357–362, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    King, A. M. Q., McCahon, D., Slade, W. R., and Newman, J. W. I., 1982, Recombination in RNA, Cell 29:921–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Romanova, L. I., Tolskaya, E. A., Kolesnikova, M. S., and Agol, V. I., 1980, Biochemical evidence for intertypic genetic recombinations of polioviruses, FEBS Lett. 118:109–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tokskaya, E. A., Romanova, L. A., Kolesnikova, M. S., and Agol, V. I., 1983, Intertypic recombination in poliovirus: Genetic and biochemical studies, Virology 124:121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Omata, T., Kohara, M., Kuge, S., Komatsu, T., Abe, S., Semler, B. L., Kameda, A., Itoh, H., Arita, M., Wimmer, E., and Nomoto, A., 1986, Genetic analysis of the attenuation phenotype of poliovirus type 1, J. Virol. 58:348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore, M., Kaplan, M. H., McPhee, J., Bregman, D. J., and Klein, S. W., 1984, Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features of Coxsackie B1-B5 infections in the United States, 1970–79, Public Health Rep. 99:515–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schoub, B. D., Johnson, S., McAnerney, J. M., Dos Santos, I. L., and Klaassen, K. I., 1985, Epidemic Coxsackie B virus infection in Johannesburg, South Africa, J. Hyg. (Camb.) 95:447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crowell, R. L., and Landau, B. J., 1979, Picornaviridae: Enteroviruses-Cox-sackieviruses, in: CRC Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science, Virology and Rickettsiology, volume 1, part 1 (G. D. Hsuing and R. Green, eds.), pp. 131–155, CRC, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lerner, A. M., and Wilson, F. M., 1973, Virus myocardiopathy, Prog. Med. Virol. 15:63–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woodruff, J. F., 1980, Viral myocarditis. A review, Am. J. Pathol. 101:425–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Herskowitz, A., Traystman, M. D., and Beisel, K. W., 1986, Murine viral myocarditis—New insights into mechanisms of disease, Heart Failure 2:86–91.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    McManus, B. M., Gauntt, C. J., and Cassling, R. S., 1986, Immunopathologic basis of myocardial injury, Cardiovasc. Clin. 18(No. 2): 163–184.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yoon, J. W., 1983, Viruses in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in: Current Problems in Clinical Biochemistry. Diabetes and Immunology: Pathogenesis and Immunotheraphy (H. Kolb, G. Schernthaner, and F. A. Gries, eds.), (H. Aebi, M. Berger, and V. C. Dubach, eds.), pp. 11–38, Hans Huber, Bern, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Choppin, P. W., and Eggers, H. J., 1962, Heterogeneity of Coxsackie B4 virus: Two kinds of particles which differ in antibody sensitivity, growth rate, and plaque size, Virology 18:470–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Richter, F. A., MacPherson, L. W., Campbell, J. B., and Labzoffsky, N. A., 1972, Studies on intratypic variants of Coxsackie Bl virus, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 38:77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown, F., and Wild, F., 1974, Variation in the coxsackievirus type B5 and its possible role in the etiology of swine vesicular disease, Intervirology 3:125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harris, T.J. R., Doel, T. R., and Brown, F., 1977, Molecular aspects of the antigenic variation of swine vesicular disease and Coxsackie B5 viruses, J. Gen. Virol. 35:299–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ash, P., Leong, W. A., Kennett, M. L., and Schnagl, R. D., 1985, Neutralization kinetic analysis of echovirus 30 and coxsackievirus B4 strains revealed little antigenic variation amongst the echovirus strains, Aust.J. Exp. Biol. Med. 63:219–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chow, M., Yabrov, R., Bittle, J., Hogle, J., and Baltimore, D., 1985, Synthetic peptides from four separate regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 induce neutralizing antibodies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:910–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherry, B., Mosser, A. G., Colonno, R. J., and Rueckert, R. R., 1986, Use of monoclonal antibodies to identify four neutralization immunogens on a common cold Picornavirus, human rhinovirus 14, J. Virol. 57:246–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crowell, R. L., and Landau, B. J., 1983, Receptors in the initiation of picornavirus infections, in: Comprehensive Virology. Vol. 18 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 1–42, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reagan, K. J., Goldberg, B., and Crowell, R. L., 1984, Altered receptor specificity of coxsackievirus B3 after growth in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, J. Virol. 49:635–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jordan, G. W., and Bolton, V., 1985, Interferon-sensitive coxsackievirus variants in nature, J. Interferon Res. 5:289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marcus, P. I., Guidon, P. I., and Sekellick, M. L., 1981, Interferon induction by viruses. VII. Mengovirus: interferon-sensitive mutant phenotype attributed to inter-feron-inducing particle activity, J. Interferon Res. 1:601–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen, S. H., Bolton, V., and Jordan, G. W., 1983, Relationship of the interferon inducing particle phenotype of encephalomyocarditis virus to virus-induced diabetes mellitus, Infect. Immun. 42:602–611.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Trousdale, M. D., Paque, R. E., and Gauntt, C. J., 1977, Isolation of coxsackievirus B3 temperature-sensitive mutants and their assignment to complementation groups, Bio-chem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76:368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gauntt, C. J., Trousdale, M. D., Lee, J. C., and Paque, R. E., 1983, Preliminary characterization of coxsackievirus B3 temperature-sensitive mutants, J. Virol. 45:1037–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Richman, D. D., and Murphy, B. R., 1979, The association of the temperature-sensitive phenotype with viral attenuation in animals and humans: Implications for the development and use of live virus vaccines, Rev. Infect. Dis. 1:413–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Trousdale, M. D., Paque, R. E., Nealon, T., and Gauntt, C. J., 1979, Assessment of coxsackievirus B3 ts mutants for induction of myocarditis in a murine model, Infect. Immun. 23:486–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gauntt, C. J., Jones, D. C., Huntington, H. W., Gudvangen, R. J., and DeShambo, R. M., 1984, Murine forebrain anomalies induced by coxsackievirus B3 variants, J. Med. Virol. 14:341–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marlin, A. E., Huntington, W. H., Arizpe, H. M., Gudvangen, R. J., Brans, Y. W., and Gauntt, C. J., 1985, Coxsackievirus group B and hydranencephaly, Concepts Pediatr. Neurosurg. 6:147–160.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gauntt, C. J., Gudvangen, R. J., Brans, Y. W., and Marlin, A. E., 1985, Coxsackievirus group B antibodies in the ventricular fluid of infants with severe anatomic defects in the central nervous system, Pediatrics 76:64–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chatterjee, N. K., and Nejman, C., 1986, Protein kinase in nondiabetogenic coxsackievirus B4, J. Med. Virol. 19:353–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Grubman, M. J., Baxt, B., LaTorre, J. L., and Bachrach, H. L., 1981, Identification of a protein kinase activity in purified foot-and-mouth disease virus, J. Virol. 39:455–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Scharli, C. E., and Koch, G., 1984, Protein kinase activity in purified poliovirus particles and empty viral capsid preparations, J. Gen. Virol. 65:129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cole, C. N., Smoler, D., Wimmer, E., and Baltimore, D., 1971, Defective interfering particles of poliovirus, J. Virol. 7:478–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nomoto, A., Jacobson, A., Lee, Y. F., Dunn, J., and Wimmer, E., 1979, Defective intefering particles of poliovirus: Mapping of the deletion and evidence that the deletions in the genome of DI (1), (2) and (3) are located in the same region, J. Mol. Biol. 128:179–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    McClure, M. A., Holland, J. J., and Perrault, J., 1980, Generation of defective interfering particles in picornaviruses, Virology 100:408–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huang, A. S., and Baltimore, D., 1977, Defective interfering animal viruses, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 10 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 73–116, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Holland, J. J., Kennedy, S. I., Semler, B. L., Jones, C. J., Roux, L., and Grabau, E. A., 1980, Defective interfering RNA viruses and the host-cell response, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 16 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), pp. 137–192, Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gauntt, C. J., Trousdale, M. D., LaBadie, D. R. L., Paque, R. E., and Nealon, T., 1979, Properties of coxsackievirus B3 variants which are amyocarditic or myocarditic for mice, J. Med. Virol. 3:207–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chatterjee, N. K., Samsonoff, W. A., and Tuchowski, C., 1983, Isolation and characterization of a membrane-bound population of group B coxsackieviruss, J. Virol. 45:832–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chatterjee, N. K., and Nejman, C., 1985, Membrane-bound virions of coxsackievirus B4: Cellular localization, analysis of the genomic RNA, genome-linked protein, and effect on host macromolecular synthesis, Arch. Virol. 84:105–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lerner, A. M., and Reyes, M. P., 1985, Coxsackievirus myocarditis—With special reference to acute and chronic effects, Prog. Cardiovascular Dis. 27:373–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Roesing, T. G., Landau, B. J., and Crowell, R. L., 1979, Limited persistence of viral antigen in coxsackievirus B3-induced heart disease in mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160:382–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Paque, R. E., Gauntt, C. J., Nealon, T. J., and Trousdale, M. D., 1978, Assessment of cell-mediated hypersensitivity against coxsackievirus B3 viral-induced myocarditis utilizing hypertonic salt extracts of cardiac tissue, J. Immunol. 120:1672–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Paque, R. E., Straus, D. C., Nealon, T. J., and Gauntt, C. J., 1979, Fractionation and immunologic assessment of KC1-extracted cardiac antigens in coxsackievirus B3 viral-induced myocarditis, J. Immunol. 123:358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Huber, S. A., and Job, L. P., 1983, Differences in cytolytic T cell response of BALB/c mice infected with myocarditic and non-myocarditic strains of coxsackievirus group B, type 3, Infect. Immun. 39:1419–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Huber, S. A., and Lodge, P. A., 1984, Coxsackievirus B-3 myocarditis in BALB/c mice. Evidence for autoimmunity to myocyte antigens, Am. J. Pathol. 116:21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sym, S. N., Miller, S. D., and Claman, H. N., 1977, Immune suppression with supraoptimal doses of antigen in contact sensitivity. I. Demonstration of suppressor cells and their sensitivity to cyclophosphamide, J. Immunol. 119:240–244.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rollinghoff, M., Starzinski-Powitz, A., Pfizenmaier, K., and Wagner, H., 1977, Cyclophosphamide-sensitive T lymphocytes suppress the in vivo generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, J. Exp. Med. 145:455–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Estrin, M., Smith, C., and Huber, S., 1986, Antigen specific suppressor T cells present cardiac injury in Balb/c mice infected with a nonmyocarditic variant of coxsackievirus group B, type 3, Am. J. Pathol. 125:578–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gauntt, C. J., Gomez, P. T., Duffey, P. S., Grant, J. A., Trent, D. W., Witherspoon, S. M., and Paque, R. E., 1984, Characterization and myocarditic capabilities of coxsackievirus B3 variants in selected murine strains, J. Virol. 52:598–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lutton, C. W., Gudvangen, R. J., Nealon, T. J., Paque, R. E., and Gauntt, C. J., 1985, Cellular immune responses in mice challenged with an amyocarditic variant of coxsackievirus B3, J. Med. Virol. 17:345–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lutton, C. W., and Gauntt, C. J., 1986, Coxsackievirus B3 infection alters plasma membrane of neonatal skin fibroblasts, J. Virol. 60:294–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Godeny, E. K., and Gauntt, C. J., 1986, Involvement of natural killer cells in coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis, J. Immunol. 137:1695–1702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jimes, S., and Jamison, R. M., 1983, Coxsackievirus B4: In vitro genetic markers and virulence, Arch. Virol. 77:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jimes, S., Jamison, R. M., and Grafton, W. D., 1984, Coxsackievirus B4: In vitro genetic markers and cardiovirulence, Arch. Virol. 81:345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cao, Y., Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Monoclonal antibodies for study of antigenic variation in coxsackievirus type B4: Association of antigenic determinants with myocarditic properties of the virus, J. Gen. Virol. 65:925–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Webb, S. R., Kearse, K. P., Foulke, C. L., Hartig, P. C., and Prabhakar, B. S., 1986, Neutralization epitope diversity of coxsackievirus B4 isolates detected by monoclonal antibodies, J. Med. Virol. 20:9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kew, O. M., Notlay, B. K., Hatch, N. H., Nakano, J. H., and Obijeski, J. F., 1981, Multiple genetic changes can occur in the oral poliovaccines upon replication in humans, J. Gen. Virol. 56:337–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Komatsu, T., Hashimoto, L, and Kohara, T., 1983, Variation in virulence of Coxsackie virus B3 in the heart of mice. I. Comparison of mortality and virus growth in the heart and other organs, Microbiol. Immunol. 27:265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hashimoto, I., Komatsu, T., and Kohara, T., 1983, Variation in virulence of Coxsackie virus B3 in the heart of mice. II. Pathological comparison, Microbiol. Immunol. 27:335–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cao, Y., Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Differing cardiotropic and myocarditic properties of group B type 4 coxsackievirus strains, Arch. Virol. 80:119–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Notkins, A. L., and Yoon, J. W., 1984, Virus-induced diabetes mellitus, in: Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis (A. L. Notkins and M. B. A. Oldstone, eds.), pp. 241–247, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barrett-Conner, E., 1985, Is insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus caused by coxsackievirus B infection? A review of the epidemiologic evidence, Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hartig, P. C., Madge, G. E., and Webb, S. R., 1983, Diversity within a human isolate of Coxsackie B4: Relationship to viral-induced diabetes, J. Med. Virol. 11:23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chatterjee, N. K., Haley, T. M., and Nejan, C., 1985, Functional alterations in pancreatic β cells as a factor in virus-induced hyperglycemia in mice, J. Biol. Chem. 260:12786–12791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kuno, S., Itakagi, A., Yamazaki, I., Katsumoto, T., and Kurimura, T., 1984, Pathogenicity of newly isolated coxsackievirus B4 for mouse pancreas, Arch. Virol. 28:433–436.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jordan, G. W., Bolton, V., and Schmidt, N. J., 1985, Diabetogenic potential of Coxsackie B viruses in nature, Arch. Virol. 86:213–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yoon, J. W., Onodera, T., and Notkins, A. L., 1978, Virus-induced diabetes mellitus. XV. Beta cell damage and insulin-dependent hyperglycemia in mice infected with Coxsackie virus B4, J. Exp. Med. 148:1068–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yoon, J-W., London, W. T., Curfman, B. L., Brown, R. L., and Notkins, A. L., 1986, Coxsackie virus B4 produces transient diabetes in nonhuman primates, Diabetes 35:712–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grist, N. R., and Roberts, G. B. S., 1966, Coxsackie A 7 virus infections of rodents, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 19:454–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kamahora, T., Itagaki, A., Hattori, N., Tsuchie, H., and Kurimura, T., 1985, Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis of coxsackievirus A10 isolated in Japan, J. Gen. Virol. 66:2627–2634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dagan, R., and Menegus, M. A., 1986, A combination of four cell types for rapid detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens, J. Med. Virol. 19:219–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sarnow, P., Bernstein, H. D., and Baltimore, D., 1986, A poliovirus temperature-sensitive RNA synthesis mutant located in a noncoding region of the genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:571–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Maverakis, N. H., Schmidt, N. J., Riggs, J. L., and Lennette, E. H., 1973, Carrier cultures of human fetal diploid cells infected with coxsackievirus type B2, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 43:289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Blacklow, N. R., Rose, F. B., and Whalen, R. A., 1975, Organ culture of human aorta: Prolonged survival with support of viral replication, J. Infect. Dis. 131:575–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schnurr, D. P., and Schmidt, N.J., 1984, Persistent infection of mouse fibroblasts with coxsackievirus, Arch. Virol. 81:91–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Frank, J. A., Jr., Schmidt, E. V., Smith, R. E., and Wilfert, C. M., 1986, Persistent infection of rat insulinoma cells with Coxsackie B4 virus, Arch. Virol. 87:143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Matteucci, D., Paglianti, M., Giangregorio, A. M., Capobianchi, M. R., Dianzani, F., and Bendinelli, M., 1985, Group B coxsackieviruses readily establish persistent infections in human lymphoid cell lines, J. Virol. 56:651–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gomez, M. P., Reyes, M. P., Smith, F., Ho, L. K., and Lerner, A. M., 1980, Coxsackievirus 3-positive mononuclear leukocytes in peripheral blood of Swiss and athymic mice during infection, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 165:107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Godeny, E. K., Sprague, E. A., Schwartz, C. J., and Gauntt, C. J., 1986, Coxsackievirus group B replication in cultured fetal baboon aortic smooth muscle cells, J. Med. Virol. 20:135–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Strongwater, S. L., Dorovini-Zis, K., Ball, R. D., and Schintzer, T. J., 1984, A murine model of polymyositis induced by coxsackievirus B1 (Tucson strain), Arthritis Rheum. 27:433–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ytterberg, S. R., 1985, Coxsackievirus B-l induced murine polymyositis requires active muscle infection by live virus to initiate disease, Arthritis Rheum. 28:69 (abst.).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Modlin, J. F., and Crumpacker, C. S., 1982, Coxsackievirus B infection in pregnant mice and transplacental infection of the fetus, Infect. Immun. 37:222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fujinami, R. S., Oldstone, M. B. A., Wrobewska, Z., Frankel, M. E., and Koprowski, H., 1983, Molecular mimicry in virus infection: Crossreaction of measles virus phos-phoprotein or of herpes simplex virus protein with human intermediate filaments, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:2346–2350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gould, E. A., Chanas, A. C., Buckley, A., and Clegg, C. S., 1983, Monoclonal immunoglobulin M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus that can react with a nuclear antigen in mammalian cells, Infect. Immun. 41:774–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Haynes, B. F., Robert-Guroff, M., Metzgar, R. S., Franchini, G., Kalyanaraman, V. S., Parker, T. J., and Gallo, R. C., 1983, Monoclonal antibody against human T cell leukemia virus p19 defines a human thymic epithelial antigen acquired during ontogeny, J. Exp. Med. 157:907–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Srinivasappa, J., Saegusa, J., Praghakar, B. S., Gentry, M. K., Buchmeier, M. J., Wiktor, T. J., Koprowski, H., Oldstone, M. B. A., and Notkins, A. L., 1986, Molecular mimicry: Frequency of reactivity of monoclonal antiviral antibodies with normal tissues, J. Virol. 57:397–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Notkins, A. L., Onodera, T., and Prabhakar, B., 1984, Virus-induced autoimmunity, in: Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis (A. L. Notkins and M. B. A. Oldstone, eds.), pp. 210–215, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Saegusa, J., Prabhakar, B. S., Essani, K., McClintock, P. R., Fukuda, Y., Ferrans, V.J., and Notkins, A. L., 1986, Monoclonal antibody to coxsackievirus B4 reacts with myocardium, J. Infect, Dis. 153:372–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wolfgram, L. J., Beisel, K. W., and Rose, N. R., 1985, Heart-specific autoantibodies following murine coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis, J. Exp. Med. 161:1112–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Huber, S. A., and Lodge, P. A., 1986, Coxsackievirus B-3 myocarditis. Identification of different pathogenic mechanisms in DBA/2 and BALB/c mice, Am. J. Pathol. 122:284–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Maisch, B., 1984, Diagnostic relevance of humoral and cell mediated immune reactions in patients with acute myocarditis and congestive cardiomyopathy, in: Cardiology (E. I. Chazov, V. N. Smirnov, and R. G. Oganov, eds.), pp. 1327–1338, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hogle, J. M., Chow, M., and Filman, D. J., 1985, Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus at 2.9 Å resolution, Science 229:1359–1365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rossmann, M. G., Arnold, E., Erickson, J. W., Frankenberger, E. A., Griffith, J. P., Hecht, H-J., Johnson, J. E., Kamer, G., Luo, M., Mosser, A. G., Rueckert, R. R., Sherry, B., and Vriend, G., 1985, Structure of a human common cold virus and functional relationship to other picornaviruses, Nature (Lond.) 317:145–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Campbell, B. A., and Cords, C. E., 1983, Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit attachment of group B coxsackievirus, J. Virol. 48:561–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Crowell, R. L., Field, A. K., Schleif, W. A., Long, W. L., Colonno, R. J., Mapoles, J. E., and Emini, E. A., 1986, Monoclonal antibody that inhibits infection of HeLa and rhabdomyosarcoma cells by selected enteroviruses through receptor blockade, J. Virol. 57:438–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Minor, P. D., Pipkin, P. A., Hockley, D., Schild, G. C., and Almond, J. W., 1984, Monoclonal antibodies which block cellular receptors of poliovirus, Virus Res. 1:203–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Colonno, R. J., Callahan, P. L., and Long, W. J., 1986, Isolation of a monoclonal antibody that blocks attachment of the major group of human rhinoviruses, J. Virol. 57:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles J. Gauntt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyThe University of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations