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Hydraulically Operated Two-Phase Helium Expansion Engine

  • R. W. Johnson
  • S. C. Collins
  • J. L. SmithJr.
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 16)

Abstract

Traditional helium refrigerators and liquefiers have generally contained two or three stages of refrigeration; namely, liquid-nitrogen precooling, one or two reciprocating expansion engines or turbine expanders, followed by a Joule-Thomson (JT) valve. In order to liquefy helium, the JT exchanger has to be precooled well below the inversion temperature, i.e. 30°K [1]. For useful yields of liquid—10% or more of the JT stream—the gas has to be cooled to at least 15°K. Use of an expansion engine rather than a JT valve increases the maximum precooling temperature which can be used for the liquefaction of helium. For example, a helium gas stream entering a JT heat exchanger at 40° K and expanding through an engine of 90% efficiency can provide a liquid yield of 10%.

Keywords

Equivalent Ideal Diagram Liquid Helium Hydraulic Cylinder Check Valve Needle Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    R. H. Kropschot, B. W. Birmingham, and D. B. Mann, Technology of Liquid Helium, NBS Monograph 111 (Oct. 1968), p. 58.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. R. Gardner, Product Eng., 32 (31): 8 (1961).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. C. Vander Arend, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 15, Plenum Press, New York (1969), p. 150.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Y. Robinson Jr. and W. H. Hogan, in: Cryogenic Engineering: Present Status and Future Development, Heywood Temple Industrial Publications, Ltd., London (1968), p. 219.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Johnson
    • 1
  • S. C. Collins
    • 1
  • J. L. SmithJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Cryogenic Technology, Inc.WalthamUSA
  2. 2.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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