Ophthalmic Diseases of Fishes

  • Thomas W. Dukes
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 1)


Fishes have more ocular structural variation than all other vertebrates together and some have developed patterns of camouflage such as skin spots on the dorsal part of the cornea as in Epinephelus quttatus. Others have developed shields to protect the eye as in Selar crumenophthalmus. People are generally familiar with the eye migration of flat fishes. The eyeball of Anableps of South America is adapted to seeing, both below and above the water simultaneously and for this purpose the fish has two corneas and two retinas in each globe. Many deep-sea fishes such as Doli-copteryx have varied ocular structure. Due to limitation of time and space only a few examples of eye diseases are presented.


Lake Trout Gizzard Shad Ocular Structure Brown Bullhead Ophthalmic Disease 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas W. Dukes
    • 1
  1. 1.KemptvilleCanada

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