Visual Pigments: Phylogeny and Ecology

  • M. A. Ali
  • H.-J. Wagner
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 1)


Although John Lythgoe’s (1972) list of vertebrate visual pigments has been extremely useful and appreciated it was felt that a repertoire of visual pigments in fishes should also be given in this volume, for various reasons. First, it seemed that a volume of this sort will not be complete without such information. Secondly, considerable information quality and quantity wise has appeared since the material for Lythgoe’s list was gathered. Also, we wanted to give some information on the habitat of the various families and follow a more modern classification. The work was undertaken with the naive feeling that it will essentially be a reorganisation of Lythgoe’s list but experience proved it to be otherwise. Almost as many more species have been added and the integration of new information, reorganisation of the classification and, compilation of ecological information proved to be formidable and time consuming but worthwile tasks. We did not also set a limit as Lythgoe did. Any available information known or provided to us has been included. Thus, information obtained by the Carr-Price method (Ali and Heumann, 1970, 1972) and by microspectrophotometry of single cells (Hárosi, 1973) as well as retinal patches (Muntz, 1973) has been integrated.


Visual Pigment Pigment Type Principal Cone Turbid Coastal Water Shore Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ali, M. A., and Heumann, W. R. (1970). Distribution of vitamins A1 and A2 in the retinas of some marine fishes from the Gulf of California. Vision Res. 10, 1307–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ali, M. A., and Heumann, W. R, (1972). Distribution of vitamins A1 and A2 in the retinas of some marine fishes from the Gulf on California II. Vision Res. 12, 2157–2159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ali, M. A., Hubbard, R., and Wald, G. (1970). Scotopic visual pigments in the albino brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Rev. Can. Biol. 29, 153–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen, D. M. (1971). Photic control of the proportions of two visual pigments in a fish. Vision Res. 11, 1077–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Allen, D. M., and McFarland, W. N. (1973). The effect of temperature on rhopsin-porphyropsin ratios in a fish. Vision Res. 13, 1303–1309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allen, D. M., MacFarland, W.N., Munz, F. W., and Poston, H. A. (1973). Changes in the visual pigments of trout. Can. J. Zool. 51, 901–914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnott, H.-J., Best, A.C.G, Ito, S., and Nicol, J. A.C. (1974). Studies on the eyes of catfishes with special reference to the tapetum lucidum. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 186, 13–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beatty, D. D. (1969). Visual pigments of the burbot Lota lota and seasonal changes in their relative proportions. Vision Res. 9, 1173–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beatty, D. D. (1973). Visual pigments of several species of teleost fishes. Vision Res. 13, 989–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beatty, D. D. (1974). unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beatty, D. D. (1975). Visual pigments of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Vision Res, (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bowmaker, J. K. (1972). Kundt’s rule: the spectral absorbance of visual pigments in situ and in solution. Vision Res. 12, 529–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bowmaker, J. K. (1973). Spectral sensitivity and visual pigment absorbance. Vision Res. 13, 783–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bridges, C.D.B. (1964). Periodicity of absorption properties in the pigments based on vitamin A2 from fish retinae. Nature (Lond.) 208, 303–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bridges, C.D.B. (1965). Absorption properties, interconversions and environmental adaptation of pigments from fish photoreceptors. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 30, 317–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bridges, C.D.B. (1967). Spectroscopic properties of porphyropsins. Vision Res. 7, 349–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bridges, C.D.B. (1972). The Rhodopsin-Porphyropsin Visual System. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol. VII/1: Photochemistry of Vision, Ed. H.J.A. Dartnall, pp. 417–480, Berlin — Heidelberg — New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bridges, C.D.B., and Yoshikami, S. (1970a). Distribution and evolution of visual pigments in Salmonid fishes. Vision Res. 10, 609–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 39.
    Bridges, C.D.B., and Yoshikami, S. (1970b). The rhodopsin-porphyropsin system in freshwater fishes. -I. Effects of age and photic environment. Vision Res. 10, 3315–1332.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bridges, C.D.B., and Delisle, C.E. (1974a). Brief observations concerning the visual pigments of some selected fishes from Lake Heney, Québec, a relict of glacial Lake Gatineau. Vision Res. 14, 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bridges, C.D.B., and Delisle, C.E. (1974b). Postglacial evolution of the visual pigments of the smelt, Osmerus eperlanus mordax. Vision Res. 14, 345–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crescitelli, F., and Dartnall, H.J.A. (1954). A photosensitive pigment of the carp retina. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 325, 607–627.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dartnall, H. J. A. (1952). Visual pigment 467, a photosensitive pigment present in tench retinae. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 336, 257–289.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dartnall, H. J. A. (1955). Visual pigments of the bleak (Alburnus lucidus). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 128, 131–156.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dartnall, H. J. A. (1962). The photobiology of visual processes. In: The Eye, Vol. 2, (Ed. H. Davson). pp. 523–533, New York — London, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dartnall, H. J. A., and Lythgoe, J. N. (1965). The spectral clustering of visual pigments. Vision Res. 5, 81–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Greenwood, P. H., Rosen, D.E., Weitzman, S. H., and Myers, G. S. (1966). Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 131, 341–455.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hárosi, F. J. (1973). Frog rhodopsin in situ: Orientational and spectral changes in the chromophores of isolated retinal rod cells. Ph. D. Thesis, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 21218, 122 pp.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hárosi, F. J., McNichol, E. F. (1974). Visual pigments of goldfish cones. Spectral properties and dichroism. J. gen. Physiol. 63, 279–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liebman, P. A. (1973). Microspectrophotometry of Visual Receptors. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Visual Pigments, Ed. H. Langer, pp. 299–305, Berlin-Heidel-berg-New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lythgoe, J. N. (1972). List of Vertebrate Visual Pigments. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology. Vol. VII/1. Photochemistry of Vision. Ed. H.J. A. Dartnall, pp. 604–624. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marks, W. B. (1965). Visual pigments of single goldfish cones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 178, 14–32.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Munz, F. W. (1956). A new photosensitive pigment of the euryhaline teleost Gillichthys mirabilis. J. gen. Physiol. 40, 233–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Munz, F. W. (1957). The photosensitive retinal pigments of marine and euryhaline teleost fishes. Ph. D. Thesis University of California, L. A.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Munz, F. W. (1958a). Photosensitive pigments from the retinae of certain deep-sea fishes. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 140, 220–235.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Munz, F. W. (1958b). The photosensitive retinal pigments of fishes from relatively turbid coastal waters. J. gen. Physiol. 42, 445–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Munz, F. W. (1958c). Retinal pigments of a labrid fish. Nature (Lond.) 181, 1012–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Munz, F. W. (1964). The visual pigments of epipelagic and rocky-shore fishes. Vision Res. 4, 441–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Munz, F. W. (1965). Adaptation of visual pigments to the photic environment. Ciba foundation symposium. Colour vision. Physiology and Experimental Psychology, pp. 27–45. London: J. & A. Churchill.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Munz, F. W., and Beatty, D. D. (1965). A critical analysis of the visual pigments of salmon and trout. Vision Res. 5, 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Munz, F. W., and McFarland, W. N. (1965). A suggested hereditary mechanism for visual pigments of chars (Salvelinus sp.). Nature (Lond.) 206, 955–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Munz, F. W., and McFarland, W. N. (1973). The significance of spectral position in the rhodopsin of tropical marine fishes. Vision Res. 13, 1829–1874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Muntz, W. R. A. (1973). Yellow filters and the absorption of light by the visual pigments of some Amazonian fishes. Vision Res. 13, 2235–2254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O’Day, W. T., and Fernandez, H. R. (1974). Aristostomias scintillans (Malacosteidae): A deep-sea fish with visual pigments apparently adapted to its own bioluminescence. Vision Res. 14, 545–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schwanzara, S. A. (1967). The visual pigments of freshwater fishes. Vision Res. 7, 121–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Virabhadrachari, V., Krishnamoorthy, R. V., and Parvatheswararao (1967). Visual pigments in a tropical freshwater fish Etoplus maculatus (Teleostei). J. Exp. Biol. 47, 307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wald, G. (1958). The significance of vertebrate metamorphosis. Science 128, 1481–1490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wald, G. (1960). The distribution and evolution of visual systems. In: Comparative Biochemistry, Vol. 1, New York — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Walker, M. A. (1956). Homogeneity tests on visual pigment solutions from two sea fish. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 133, 56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Ali
    • 1
    • 2
  • H.-J. Wagner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dépt. de Biol. Univ. de MontréalCanada
  2. 2.Lehrstuhl für Morphologie & AnatomieUniversität RegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations