Horizontal Eye Movements in Fish

  • S. S. EasterJr.
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 1)


The enormous group of animals included under the label Pisces defies generalisation in most respects. A herpetologist friend of mine once described the teleosts as “a bottomless pit” and to be avoided for that reason. Nevertheless, I have attempted to study eye movements in fish, realising at the outset that what is true for the goldfish, my choice, may not be true for another. Indeed, we know this to be so already, for Lanchester and Mark (1969) have described eye movements in a foveated reef fish, and the fixation behaviour evident in this very visual fish is never seen in goldfish, an animal much more dependent on chemical than visual stimuli. Why, then, study the goldfish? The main reason is that our knowledge of this species’ visual system is quite detailed, and becoming more so. Therefore it seemed an appropriate organism in which to interpret visually-cued behaviour. Also the eye movements are a very objective and easily measured behaviour.


Optic Tectum Carassius Auratus Optokinetic Nystagmus Slow Phase Velocity Retinal Projection 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. EasterJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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