Accommodative Mechanisms in Aquatic Vertebrates

  • Jacob G. Sivak
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 1)


Accommodation in fishes involves two problems concerning interdependent and, yet at the same time, separate optical entities. These entities are: a) the actual mechanism of accommodation (i.e. the dynamic response which gives the eye the capacity to vary its focal power) and b) the refractive states of the eye (i.e. the degree to which the focal plane coincides or fails to coincide with the retina) which exist concurrently with a). Investigations of more than a century have gone a long way toward resolving the first problem. That is not to say that there do not exist any more difficulties and puzzles that are yet to be worked out. The second problem has resisted solution more tenaciously.


Refractive Error Refractive State Ciliary Muscle Lemon Shark Aquatic Vertebrate 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob G. Sivak
    • 1
  1. 1.School of OptometryUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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