Advertisement

The Instrumental Effects of Emotional Behavior

  • Holger Ursin

Abstract

When an individual shows emotional behavior he or she very often is in a state of high physiological activation. However, sometimes apparently emotional behavior (aggression, fear) may be associated with moderate or even low levels of activation. This chapter deals with the psychological mechanisms that determine this internal state. Whenever an organism faces a threat, the brain responds with a generalized and fairly standard “program,” which is referred to as activation in this chapter. In addition, one or several specific response patterns is chosen and “executed” by the brain, and these are referred to as emotional programs. Even if such programs occur together in many instances, they are regarded as due to independent mechanisms localized in separate parts of the brain. There seems to be an interaction between these specific programs and the internal state, and this interaction is the main topic of this chapter. The main assumption is that instrumental behavior reduces the activation level, and that emotional programs do not differ in principle from other types of behavior in their instrumental effects on the environment and the internal state.

Keywords

Corticosterone Level Active Avoidance Emotional Behavior Septal Lesion Inescapable Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, D. B. (1979). Brain mechanisms for offense, defense and submission. Behav. Brain Sci. 2:201–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, D. (1980). The use and misuse of aggression research. In Brain, P. F., and Benton, D. (eds.), Multidisciplinary Approaches to Aggression Research, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 269–293.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, F. (1950). Psychosomatic Medicine, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Anisman, H. (1978). Neurochemical changes elicited by stress. Behavioral correlates. In Anisman, H., and Bignami, G. (eds.), Psychopharmacology of Aversively Motivated Behavior, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 119–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects, Hoeber, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Belkin, D. A. (1968). Bradycardia in response to threat. Abstract. Am. Zool. 8:775.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, H. (1930). Uber das Elektroenkephalogramm des Menschen. II. J. Physiol. Neurol. 40:160–179.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, R. J., and Blanchard, D. C. (1977). Aggressive behaviour in the rat. Behav. Neural Biol. 21:197–224.Google Scholar
  9. Blanchard, R. J., Blanchard, D. C., and Takahashi, L. K. (1977). Reflexive fighting in the albino rat: Aggressive or defensive behavior. Aggressive Behav. 3:145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blaney, P. H. (1977). Contemporary theories of depression: Critique and comparison. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 86:203–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolles, R. C. (1972). Reinforcement, expectancy and learning. Psychol. Rev. 79:394–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brodai, A. (1957). The Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem. Anatomical Aspects and Functional Correlations, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  13. Cannon, J. (1932). The Widsom of the Body, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Charvat, J., Dell, P., and Folkow, B. (1964). Mental factors and cardiovascular disorders. Cardiologia 44:124–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coover, G. D., Ursin, H., and Levine, S. (1973). Plasma-corticosterone levels during active-avoidance learning in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 82:170–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coover, G. D., Ursin, H., and Murison, R. (1983). Sustained activation and psychiatric illness. In Ursin, H., and Murison, R. (eds.), Biological and Psychological Basis of Psychosomatic Disease, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 249–258.Google Scholar
  17. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry 39:28–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickinson, A. (1980). Contemporary Animal Learning Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  19. De Ryck, M., K0hler, C., Ursin, H., and Levine, S. (1976). Plasma corticosterone levels during active avoidance learning in rats with septal lesions. In De France, J. (ed.), The Septal Nuclei, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 345–357.Google Scholar
  20. Edmunds, M. (1974). Defense in Animals: A Survey of Antipredator Defenses, Longman, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Erickson, R. C., Post, R. D., and Paige, A. B. (1975). Hope as a psychiatric variable. J. Clin. Psychol. 31:324–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feshbach, S. (1964). The function of aggression and the regulation of aggressive drive. Psychol. Rev. 71:257–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forrest, M. S., and Hokanson, J. E. (1975). Depression and autonomic arousal reduction accompanying self-punitive behavior. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 84:346–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1975). Experimental approaches to the study of catecholamines and emotion. In Levi, L. (ed.), Emotions. Their Parameters and Measurement, Raven Press, New York, pp. 209–234.Google Scholar
  25. Freud, A. (1946). The Ego and Mechanisms of Defence, International Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Gray, J. A. (1975). Elements of a Two-Process Theory of Learning, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  27. Haan, N. (1978). Coping and Defending, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Hamilton, V., and Warburton, D. M. (eds.) (1979). Human Stress and Cognition: An Information Processing Approach, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Hiroto, D. S., and Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Generality of learned helplessness in man. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 31:311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hobson, J. A., and Brazier, M. A. B. (1980). The Reticular Formation Revisited: Specifying Function for a Nonspecific System, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Irwin, F. W. (1971). Intentional Behavior and Motivation, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  32. Jasper, H. H. (1963). Studies of non-specific effects upon electrical responses in sensory systems. In Moruzzi, G., Fessard, A., and Jasper, H. H. (eds.), Brain Mechanisms. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 1, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 272–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Konorski, J. (1967). Integrative Activity of the Brain, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  34. Lacey, J. I. (1950). Individual differences in somatic response patterns. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 43:338–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological Stress and the Coping Process, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Levine, S. (1980). A coping model of mother-infant relationships. In Levine, S., and Ursin, H. (eds.), Coping and Health, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 87–99.Google Scholar
  37. Levine, S., Madden, J., Conner, R. L., and Moskal, J. R., and Anderson, D. C. (1973). Physiological and behavioral effects of prior aversive stimulation (preshock) in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 10:467–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Levine, S., Weinberg, J., and Ursin, H. (1978). Definition of the coping process and statement of the problem, In Ursin, H., Baade, E., and Levine, S. (eds.), Psychobiology of Stress: A Study of Coping Men, Academic Press, New York, pp. 3–21.Google Scholar
  39. Leyhausen, P. (1960). Verhaltenstudien an Katzen, Paul Parey, Berlin.Google Scholar
  40. Lindsley, D. B. (1951). Emotion. In Stevens, S. (ed.), Handbook of Experimental Psychology, Wiley, New York, pp. 473–516.Google Scholar
  41. Mason, J. W. (1971). A re-evaluation of the concept of “non-specificity” in stress theory. J. Psychiatr. Res. 8:323–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Masserman, J. H. (1943). Behavior and Neurosis, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  43. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E. H., and Pribram, K. (1960). Plans and the Structure of Behavior, Holt, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H. W. (1949). Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 1:455–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning Theory and Behavior, Wiley, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mowrer, O. H., and Viek, P. (1948). An experimental analogue of fear from a sense of helplessness. J. Abnorm. Social Psychol. 43:193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Myhre, G., Ursin, H., and Hanssen, T. (1981). Corticosterone and body temperature during acquisition of social hierarchy in the captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Z. Tierpsychol. 57:123–130.Google Scholar
  48. Olds, J. (1977). Drives and Reinforcements. Behavioral Studies of Hypothalamic Functions, Raven, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the Schools, Hemisphere, Washington.Google Scholar
  50. Overmier, J. B., and Seligman, M. E. P. (1967). Effect of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. J. Comp. Physiol. 63:28–33.Google Scholar
  51. Overmier, J. B., Patterson, I., and Wielkiewic, R. M. (1980). Environmental contingencies as sources of stress in animals. In Levine, S., and Ursin H. (eds.), Coping and Health, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
  52. Pavlov, I. P. (1926). Conditioned Reflexes, Oxford [reprinted by Dover, New York (1960)].Google Scholar
  53. Pribram, K. H., and Melges, F. T. (1969). Psychophysiological basis of emotion. In Vinken, P. J., and Bruyn, G. W. (eds.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 3, Wiley, New York, pp. 316–342.Google Scholar
  54. Prociuk, T. J., Breen, L. J., and Lussier, R. J. (1976). Hopelessness, internal-external locus of control and depression. J. Clin. Psychol. 32:299–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rescorla, R. A., and Solomon, R. L. (1967). Two-process learning theory: Relationships between Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning. Psychol. Rev. 74:151–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosenman, M., and Morrison, P. (1974). Physiological characteristics of the alarm reaction in the deer mouse. Physiol. Zool. 47:230–241.Google Scholar
  57. Ruff, R. K. (1971). Telemetered Heart Rates of Free-Living Uinta Ground Squirrels in Response to Social interactions, Ph.D. Dissertation, Utah State University.Google Scholar
  58. Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature 138:32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smith, E. N., and Woodruff, R. A. (1980). Fear bradycardia in free ranging woodchucks. J. Mammal. 62:750–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men, Century, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Ursin, H. (1964). Flight and defense behavior in cats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 58:180–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ursin, H. (1972). Limbic control of emotional behavior. In Hitchcock, E. Laitinen, L., and Vaernet, K. (eds.), Psychosurgery, C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 34–45.Google Scholar
  63. Ursin, H. (1978). Activation, coping and psychosomatics. In Ursin, H., Baade, E., and Levine, S. (eds.), Psychobiology of Stress. A Study of Coping Men, Academic Press, New York, pp. 201–228.Google Scholar
  64. Ursin, H. (1980a). Affective and instrumental aspects of fear and aggression. In, Koukkou, M., and Lehmann, D. (eds.), Functional States of the Brain: Their Determinants, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 119–130.Google Scholar
  65. Ursin, H. (1980b). Personality, activation and somatic health. A new psychosomatic theory. In Levine, S., and Ursin, H. (eds.), Coping and Health, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 259–279.Google Scholar
  66. Ursin, H., and Murison, R. (eds.) (1983). Biological and Psychological Basis of Psychosomatic Disease, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  67. Ursin, H., Coover, G. D., K0hler, C., DeRyck, M., Sagvolden, T., and Levine, S. (1975). Limbic structures and behavior: Endocrine correlates. In Gispen, W. H., van Wimersa, Greidanus, T. B., Bohus, B., and de Wied, D. (eds.), Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 42. Hormone Homeostatis and the Brain, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 263–274.Google Scholar
  68. Ursin, H., Baade, E., and Levine, S. (eds.) (1978). Psychobiology of Stress: A Study of Coping Men, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Vanderwolf, C. H., and Robinson, T. E. (1981). Reticulo-cortical activity and behavior: A critique of the arousal theory and a new synthesis. Behav. Brain Sci. 4:459–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vinogradova, O. S., and Brazhnik, E. S. (1977). Neuronal aspects of septo-hippocampal relations. In: Ciba Symposium 58, Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System, Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 145–171.Google Scholar
  71. Volokhov, A. A. (1970). The ontogenetic development of higher nervous activity in animals. In Himwich, W. A. (ed.), Developmental Neurobiology, C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 518–610.Google Scholar
  72. Weiss, J. M., Bailey, W. H., Pohorecky, L. A., Korzeniowsky, D., and Grillione, G. (1980). Stress-induced depression of motor activity correlates with regional changes in brain norepinephrine but not in dopamine. Neurochem. Res. 5:9–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Holger Ursin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiological PsychologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations