Chronobiological Factors in Drug Abuse
Numerous experiments have shown that chronological events (i.e., biological rhythms) play a significant role in partially determining an individual’s responsivity to a wide variety of drugs. Among the many chemical agents reported to be affected by circadian rhythms are; ethanol, barbiturates, opiates, etc., with each drug presumed to have its own unique chronobiological rhythm.
It is argued that chronobiology may affect the development and maintenance of alcohol and drug abuse problems, insofar as an inidvidual’s response to a particular chemical substance will be a function of several chronobiological variables; time of day, light-dark cycles, sleep-wake patterns, and other intrinsic biochemical rhythms.
Consequently, an accurate analysis of alcohol and drug abuse problems requires not only an understanding of the psychopharmacological properties of the particular drugs involved, but a corresponding awareness of the drug user’s unique responsivity to that drug, insofar as such responses may be rhythmically determined. Such an analysis is necessary to account for individual variations in the acquisition and continuation of alcohol and drug problems, since not only will the biological rhythm determine, in part, the effect of a given drug, but a drug may well affect the biological rhythm itself.
KeywordsDrug Abuse Circadian Rhythm Circadian Variation Biological Rhythm Ethanol Preference
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bianchine, J. and Ferguson, F. 1967. Acute toxicity and lethal brain concentration of phenobarbital in young and adult albino rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 124: 1077–1079.Google Scholar
- Bornschein, R.L. 1975. Diurnal variations in morphine induced analgesia, locomotor activation and toxicity in mice. Dissert. Abstr. Int. 36(2-B): 665–666.Google Scholar
- Broughton, R. 1975. Biorythmic variations in consciousness and psychological functions. Canadian Psych. Rev. 16(4): 217–239.Google Scholar
- Conroy, R.T.W.L. and Mills, J.N. 1970.Human circadian rhythms. London: J and A Churchill.Google Scholar
- Evans, H.L., Ghiselli, W.B. and Patton, R.A. 1973. Diurnal rhythm in behavioral effects of methamphetamine, p-chloromethamphetamine and scopolamine. J. Pharm, and Exp. Ther. 186(1): 10–17.Google Scholar
- Friedman, A.H. 1974. Serendipity and chronobiology in pharmacology, in: Scheving, L.E., Halberg, F. and Pauly, J.E. (eds.) Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Gioscia, V. 1972. Drugs as chronotic agents, in: Keup, W. (ed.) Drug abuse: current concepts and research. Springfield, XL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers.Google Scholar
- Halberg, R. 1977. President’s letter: chronobiology in 1977. Chro- nobiologia. 4(3): 255–263.Google Scholar
- Haus, E. and Halberg F. 1959. 24-hour rhythm in susceptibility of C mice to toxic dose of ethanol. J. Appl. Pysiol. 14: 878–880.Google Scholar
- Hofman, F.G. 1975. A handbook on drug and alcohol abuse. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Jones, B.M. 1974. Circadian variation in the effects of alcohol on cognitive performance. Q. J.Stud. Ale. 35(4): 1212–1219.Google Scholar
- Luce, G.G. 1971. Biological rhythms in human and animal physiology. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
- Marte, E. and Halberg, F. 1961. Circadian susceptibility rhythm of mice to librium. Fed. Proc. 20: 305.Google Scholar
- Morgane, P.J. and Stern, W.C. 1974. Rhythms of the biogenic amines in the brain and sleep, in Scheving, L.E., Halberg, F., and Pauly, J.E. (eds.) Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Muller, O. 1974. Circadian rhythmicity in response to barbiturates, in Scheving, L.E., Halberg, R. and Pauly, J.E. (eds.), Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Nair, V. 1974. Circadian rhythm in drug action: a pharmacological, biochemical, and electonmicroscopic study, in: Scheving, L.E., Halberg, F. and Pauly, J.E. (eds.) Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Orr, W.C. 1976. Biological rhythms and drug addiction.Ale. Tech. Rep. Okla. City. 5: 15–18.Google Scholar
- Petren, T. and Sollberger, A. 1967. Developmental rhythms, in: von Mayersbach, H. (ed.) The cellular aspects of biorhythms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Radzialowski, P.M. and Bosquet 1968. Daily rhythmic variation in hepatic drug metabolism in the rat and mouse. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 163: 229–238.Google Scholar
- Scheving, L.E. 1969. Circadian variation in susceptibility of the rat to D-amphetamine sulfate. Anat. Ree. 160: 422.Google Scholar
- Scheving, L.E. and Vedral, D. 1966. Circadian variation in susceptibility of the rat to several different pharmacological agents. Anat. Ree. 154: 417.Google Scholar
- Vessell, E. 1968. Genetic and environmental factors affecting hexo- barbital metabolism in mice. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 151: 900–912.Google Scholar
- Vernadakis, A. and Weiner, N. (eds.) 1974.Drugs and the Developing Brain. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- von Mayersbach, H. (ed.) 1967. The cellular aspects of biorhythms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Walker, C.A. 1974. Implications of biological rhythms in brain amine concentrations and drug toxicity, in Scheving, L.E., Halberg, F. and Pauly, J.E. (eds.) Chronobiology. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin, Ltd.Google Scholar
- Yaffe, S., Krasner, J. and Catz, C. 1968. Variations in detoxifying enzymes during mammalian development. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 151: 887–899.Google Scholar