J—2 Safety Aspects of LNG Spills on Land

  • D. N. Gideon
  • A. A. Putnam
  • A. R. Duffy
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 21)


In September 1969 the American Gas Association staff and member companies organized an LNG Safety Task Group to recommend a plan for studying the potential event of an accidental spill of LNG on land. This was done against a background of rapidly developing LNG peakshaving and importation projects. At that time relatively few LNG spill experiments had been done and few papers had been published giving estimates of the dispersion hazard. The Task Group concluded that the following additional information should be obtained on LNG operations: (1) Specific types of equipment or storage failures reasonably to be expected, (2) rates and quantities of discharge that could result from possible failures, and (3) magnitudes of the resulting hazards to plant operators and to the public. In phase I of the program, data were gathered on accidents with cryogens including LNG and on possible types of failures, and the associated hazards were evaluated [1,2]. Discussions were held with personnel of the LNG and the cryogenics industries to obtain information on current practices and on accidents and to get their ideas about safety. It was concluded that large spills, though improbable, should be considered in the phase II program. The latter phase of the LNG Safety Program was planned to obtain specific results in four areas: (1) Prediction of the vapor cloud dispersion hazard, (2) means of reducing the dispersion hazard, (3) prediction of the radiation hazard, and (4) techniques of reducing the radiation hazard.


Wind Velocity Radiation Hazard Water Spill Lower Flammable Limit Battelle Columbus Laboratory 
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    A. R. Duffy et al., “LNG Safety Program, Phase I—Potential LNG Spills,” report from Battelle Columbus Laboratories to the American Gas Association, February 25, 1971.Google Scholar
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  3. 3.
    D. N. Gideon et al., “LNG Safety Program, Interim Report of Phase II Work,” Final Report to the American Gas Association on Project IS-3–1 from Battelle Columbus Laboratories, AGA Catalog No. M 19874, July 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. N. Gideon, A. A. Putnam, and A. R. Duffy, “Comparison of Dispersion From LNG Spills Over Land and Water,” report to the American Gas Association on Project SI-3–7 from Battelle Columbus Laboratories, September 4, 1974.Google Scholar
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    W. G. May and W. McQueen, ESSO, private communication.Google Scholar
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    H. R. Wesson et al., “An Experimental Study on the Mitigation of Flammable Vapor Dispersion and Fire Hazards Immediately Following LNG Spills on Land,” report to the American Gas Association by University Engineers, Inc., February 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. N. Gideon
    • 1
  • A. A. Putnam
    • 1
  • A. R. Duffy
    • 1
  1. 1.Battelle Columbus LaboratoriesColumbusUSA

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