Semiotics in the Low Countries

  • Pierre Swiggers
Part of the Topics in Contemporary Semiotics book series (TICSE)


Before embarking on a survey of semiotic activity in the Low Countries, I must impose some restrictions on its scope. An extensional restriction will be made to work published by 20th-century Belgian and Dutch scholars. This allows me to exclude the writings of “Netherlandic” speculative grammarians, such as Siger de Cortraco, who were active in the circle of modistae (more specifically, the later generations of this intellectual trend) at Paris,1 at a time when the geographical frontiers were different (and differently conceived) from the present ones. Also excluded are the dispersed remarks of pre-20th century theologians (e.g. Arnold Geulincx), and of theoretical linguists2 (e.g. Jacob van Ginneken, Antoine Grégoire), concerning the (linguistic) sign.


Sign Theory Semiotic Theory Semiotic Perspective Semiotic Activity Translation Theory 
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  1. We assume the reader to be familiar with Chapter C (“Vers des études sémiologiques: La situation en Belgique”) of the book edited by A. Helbo, Le champ sémiologigue. Perspectives internationales (Brussels: Ed. Complexe, 1979), in which can be found a rather narrow survey of semiotic practice in Belgium, focusing on semiotics of music, visual arts, and culture and offering almost exhaustive information on research done by Helbo’s team. Although filling the gaps in that survey chapter, the present study broadens the semiotic perspective and focuses on the theoretical foundations of semiotic practice in the Low Countries.Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    For surveys of speculative grammar, see Jan Pinborg, Die Entwicklung der Sprachtheorie im Mittelalter (Copenhagen and Münster: Frost, Hansen & Aschendorff, 1967);Google Scholar
  3. 1a.
    Geoffrey L. Bursill-Hall, Speculative Grammars of the Middle Ages: The doctrine of partes orationis of the modistae (The Hague: Mouton, 1971);Google Scholar
  4. 1b.
    Jan Pinborg, Logik und Semantik im Mittelalter: Ein Ueberblick (Stuttgart and Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 1972);Google Scholar
  5. 1c.
    Jean Stéfanini, “Les modistes et leur apport à la théorie de la grammaire et du signe linguistique,” Semiotica, 8 (1973), 263–275.Google Scholar
  6. 1d.
    For a bibliography, see Earline J. Ashworth, The Tradition of Medieval Logic and Speculative Grammar from Anselm to the End of the Seventeenth Century: A Bibliography from 1836 onwards (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1978)Google Scholar
  7. 1e.
    For a bibliography, see Earline J. Ashworth, and the additions in my review of this bibliography, in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 142–143.Google Scholar
  8. 1f.
    Charles Thurot’s Notices et extraits de divers manuscrits latins pour servir à l’histoire des doctrines grammaticales au moyen âge (Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1868) remains an indispensable sourcebook for the history of medieval grammar.Google Scholar
  9. 2.
    Information on these linguists can be found in the extant histories of linguistics. For a bibliography of these, see Edward Stankiewicz, “Bibliography of the History of Linguistics,” in Thomas A. Sebeok, ed. Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 13: Historiography of Linguistics (vol. eds. Hans Aarsleff, Robert Austerlitz, Dell Hymes, Edward Stankiewicz) (The Hague: Mouton,1975), pp. 1381–1446;Google Scholar
  10. 2a.
    E. F. K. Koerner, Western Histories of Linguistic Thought. An Annotated Chronological Bibliography 1822–1976 (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1978);Google Scholar
  11. 2b.
    E. F. K. Koerner, and my survey articles “Histoire et historiographie de la linguistique,” Semiotica, 31 (1979), 107–137 (= a review article on Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 13)Google Scholar
  12. 2c.
    E. F. K. Koerner, “The Historiography of Linguistics,” Linguistics, 18 (1980), 703–720 (= a review article of two books by E. F. K. Koerner).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 2d.
    For Belgian linguistics, see the excellent survey by Karel Roelandts, “Linguistics in Belgium since 1830,” in Belgium and Europe. Proceedings of the International Francqui-Colloquium, Brussels-Ghent, 12–14 November 1980 (Brussels: Academie, 1981), pp. 199–228 (Dutch version: “De taalkunde in België sinds 1830,” Verslagen en Mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde, jg. 1981, afl. 2, pp. 146–176). This survey contains a very rich bibliography; for biographical information one can use the sign. The second restriction, intensional in nature, concerns the notion “semiotic activity.” Biographie Nationale and the Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek, which contain relevant information concerning scientific scholars.Google Scholar
  14. 3.
    My “extensional” definition of the field of semiotics follows that of Umberto Eco, A Theory of Semiotics (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  15. 3a.
    For some thought-provoking views on the field of semiotics, see Thomas A. Sebeok, “Semiotics: A Survey of the State of the Art,” in Thomas A. Sebeok ed., Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 12: Linguistics and Adjacent Arts and Sciences (The Hague: Mouton, 1974), pp. 211–264;Google Scholar
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    Thomas A. Sebeok, the same, “The Semiotic Web: A Chronicle of Prejudices,” Bulletin of Literary Semiotics, 2(1975), 1–63.Google Scholar
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    Both studies are reprinted in Thomas A. Sebeok, Contributions to the Doctrine of Signs (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), pp. 1–45 and 149–188.Google Scholar
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    Because of lack of space, I will not attempt to systematize Eco’s division, which would gain in homogeneity if based on a solid classification of sign-types. Of course, such a classification still remains a strong desideratum.Google Scholar
  19. 5.
    This theory of semiotics belongs to what G. Klaus, calls sigmatics (Sigmatik). See Georg Klaus, Semiotik und Erkenntnistheorie (Munich: Fink, 1963). For some remarks on the theory of semiotics, see my “La Sémiotique à la recherche de l’essence des sens,” Linguisticae Investigationes, 4 (1980), 420–430.Google Scholar
  20. 6.
    Eric Buyssens, Les Langages et le discours. Essai de linguistiquefonctionnelle dans le cadre de la sémiologie (Brussels: Lebègue, 1943).Google Scholar
  21. 7.
    For a judgment on the value of Buyssens’ book, see Thomas A. Sebeok, Contributions to the Doctrine of Signs (Brussels: Lebègue, 1943), p. 164.Google Scholar
  22. 8.
    It seems to me that the work of Luis J. Prieto is a genuine continuation, both by its scope and its method, of Buyssens’s pioneering work. See Luis J. Prieto, Principes de noologie (The Hague: Mouton, 1964), Messages et signaux (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966) and Etudes de linguistique et de sémiologie générales (Geneva: Droz, 1975).Google Scholar
  23. 8a.
    On the fate of Buyssens’s monograph of 1943, see Thomas A. Sebeok, Contributions to the Doctrine of Signs, (Geneva: Droz, 1975), p. 164.Google Scholar
  24. 9.
    Buyssens’s book originally appeared in 1943; a slightly revised version of it can be found in Eric Buyssens, La Communicationet l’articulation linguistique (Brussels: Presses Universitaires, 1967), pp. 9–74. The monograph has the following chapters: “Sémiologie et linguistique fonctionnelles”; “L’Acte de communication”; “Analyse psychologique de l’acte de communication”; “La Sémie et le signe”; “Classification des sémies”; “Rapports entre sémies”; “Le Discours et la pensée”; “Les notions systématiques propres au discours”; “Conclusion.” References are to the original version of 1943.Google Scholar
  25. 10.
    Buyssens uses the Saussurean term sémiologie throughout his book. However, for reasons of uniformity, I will use here the term semiotics, which is more frequently used in the English-speaking scholarly world, and I will use this term as an equivalent of French sémiologie (I am aware that these terms, belonging to different traditions of research, are not entirely coextensive).Google Scholar
  26. 11.
    Buyssens, Les Langages et le discours, op. cit., p. 10.Google Scholar
  27. 12.
    Ibid., pp. 24–25.Google Scholar
  28. 13.
    This abstract component renders Buyssens’s semiotic theory akin to the Stoic theory of the sign.Google Scholar
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    See Buyssens, Les Langages et le discours, op. cit., p. 59.Google Scholar
  30. 15.
    The sign is defined as “l’élément indécomposable commun à plusieurs sèmes du double point de vue de la forme et de la signification” (ibid., p. 37; see also p. 41).Google Scholar
  31. 16.
    Ibid., pp. 38–39.Google Scholar
  32. 17.
    For a brief description of these semiotic levels, see Innocent Maria Bocheński, The Methods of Contemporary Thought (New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1968), p. 51. This book was originally published as Die zeitgenössischen Denkmethoden (Bern: Francke, 1961).Google Scholar
  33. 18.
    Buyssens, Les Langages et le discours, op. cit., p. 50.Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 30, “J’entends en effet par parole l’acte sémique oral, par discours le sème oral. Le discours est la partie fonctionnelle de la parole.”Google Scholar
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    Ibid., p. 63–64. See also Buyssens’s articles “La Nature du signe linguistique,” Acta Linguistica, 2 (1940), 83–86, and “De l’abstrait et du concret dans les faits linguistiques: la parole, le discours, la langue,” Acta Linguistica, 3 (1942 – 1943), 17–23.Google Scholar
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    See his studies: “Le Langage par gestes chez les moines,” Revue de l’Institut de sociologie de Bruxelles, 29 (1956), 537–545; Vérité et langue. Langue et pensée (Brussels: Editions de l’Institut de Sociologie, 1960); La Communication et l’articulation linguistique (Brussels and Paris: Editions de l’Université & Presses Universitaires, 1967). In recent years, Buyssens has written two studies dealing with problems of theoretical linguistics: Les Catégories grammaticales du français (Brussels: Editions de l’Université, 1975) and Epistémologie de laphonématique (Brussels: Editions de l’Université, 1980). The latter work includes a select bibliography of Buyssens’ writings (pp. 73–74).Google Scholar
  37. 22.
    Hendrik J. Pos receives ample treatment in Herman Parret and Roger Van De Velde, “Structuralism in Belgium and in the Netherlands,” Semiotica, 29 (1980), 145–173. This article also contains a useful bibliography of Pos’s writings (pp. 171–172).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 22a.
    Hendrik J. Pos receives ample treatment in Herman Parret and Roger Van De Velde, Scholars who do not read Dutch can find the essence of Pos’s ideas in his paper “Perspectives du structuralisme,” Travaux du Cercle de Linguistique de Prague, 8 (1939), pp. 29–47.Google Scholar
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    Antoon Reichling, Het Woord. Een studie omirent de grondslag van taal en taalgebruik (Zwolle: Tjeenk Willink, 1935).Google Scholar
  40. 24.
    Cornelis F. P. Stutterheim, Het begrip metaphoor. Een taalkundig en wijsgeerig onderzoek (Amsterdam: H.J. Paris, 1941).Google Scholar
  41. 25.
    Chaïm Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, Traité de l’argumentation. Nouvelle rhétorique (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1958). A third edition of this book appeared in 1976.Google Scholar
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    This insistance was mainly due to Perelman’s strong juridical interests.Google Scholar
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    See Ghaïm Perelman, Le Champ de l’argumentation (Brussels: Presses Universitaires, 1970);Google Scholar
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    See Ghaïm Perelman, the same, L’Empire rhétorique (Paris: Vrin, 1977)Google Scholar
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    See Ghaïm Perelman, “Philosophie et rhétorique,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofa 41 (1979), 433–446.Google Scholar
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    Perelman, “Philosophie et rhétorique,” op. cit., p. 444. The mission of the philosopher is to present a reasonable view of man, of his place in the universe, of his interactions with others, and possibly, with God, of the way in which he organizes and hierarchizes his system of values and to propose this view for universal adhesion. This means that everyone is invited to take a stand, to submit criticisms and objections which the philosopher must address. It is in this way that a philosophical dialogue will be started. A rhetorical conception of philosophy, of a philosophy which wants to be accepted, inevitably leads to a philosophy in dialogue. It is the normal progression of philosophy to pass through controversy, through the opposition of ideas and through the attempt to surpass this opposition. It is perhaps in this way that Hegel’s dialectic should be conceived. But if this is so, one then understands that the dialogue can continually be taken up, that the questions cannot be definitely solved. Indeed, that which is admitted into one stage of society, of knowledge, and of culture, is not acceptable in another.—Ed.Google Scholar
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    See Jacques Dubois et al. (= Groupe |x of the University of Liège), Rhétorique générale (Paris: Larousse, 1970)Google Scholar
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    Of special importance here are the publications of the Dutch philosopher of language Samuel Ijsseling: “Filosofie en retorica,” Dietsche Warande en Belfort, 118 (1973), 333–343Google Scholar
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    Of special importance here are the publications of the Dutch philosopher of language Samuel Ijsseling: Retoriek en filosofie. Wat gebeurt er wanneer er gesproken wordt? (Bilthoven: Ambo, 1975);Google Scholar
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    Of special importance here are the publications of the Dutch philosopher of language Samuel Ijsseling: Rhetoric and Philosophy in Conflict. An Historical Survey (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1976 = translation of Ijsseling [1975])Google Scholar
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    Of special importance here are the publications of the Dutch philosopher of language Samuel Ijsseling: “Rhétorique et philosophic Platon et les sophistes, ou la tradition métaphysique et la tradition rhétorique,” Revue philosophique de Louvain, 74 (1976), 193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Of special importance here are the publications of the Dutch philosopher of language Samuel Ijsseling: “Retoriek, filosofie en macht,” Wijsgerig Perspectief, 17 (1976–1977), 237–252. Other, more international manifestations of this “rhetorical interest” are the foundation of the journal Philosophy and Rhetoric (1968-) and the publication of issue 5 of Poétique, entitled Rhétorique et Philosophie (1971).Google Scholar
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    For the references, see the preceding footnote. I have reviewed the English translation of Ijsseling’s book in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 40 (1978), 527–528.Google Scholar
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    For a survey of Belgian and Dutch work (by E. M. Barth, J. van Benthem, W.J. Drop, R. Feys, C. Keers, C. W. Krabbe, K. Kuypers, J. L. Martens, H. Roelants) on the theory of argumentation, see F. H. van Eemeren, R. Grootendorst and T. Kruiger, Argumentatietheorie (Utrecht and Antwerp: Het Spectrum, 1978), which contains a rich bibliography.Google Scholar
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    See Leo Apostel, “Further Remarks on the Pragmatics of Natural Languages,” in Pragmatics of Natural Languages, ed. Y. Bar-Hillel (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1971), pp. 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Leo Apostel, “Pragmatique praxéologique: communication et action,” in Le Langage en contexte. Etudes philosophiques et linguistiques de pragmatique, ed. H. Parret (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1980), pp. 193–315.Google Scholar
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    Terry Winograd, “Towards a Procedural Understanding of Semantics,” Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 30 (1976), 261–303.Google Scholar
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    Leo Apostel, “Persuasive Communication as Metaphorical Discourse under the Guidance of Conversational Maxims,” Logique et Analyse, 22 (1979), 265–320.Google Scholar
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    Jef Verschueren, Pragmatics: An annotated bibliography, with particular reference to speech act theory (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1978).Google Scholar
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    Jef Verschueren, On Speech Act Verbs (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1980). This book appeared as volume 4 in the series “Pragmatics and Beyond.”Google Scholar
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    Johan Van Der Auwera, Inleiding tot de linguïstische pragmatiek (Leuven: Acco, 1977). This book contains an almost exhaustive bibliography of the author’s previous writings.Google Scholar
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    Part of this thesis was published as volume 3 (1981) of “Pragmatics and Beyond”: Johan Van Der Auwera, What Do We Talk About When We Talk? Speculative Grammar and the Semantics and Pragmatics of Focus (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1981).Google Scholar
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    The volume edited by Van Der Auwera, The Semantics of Determiners, appeared in 1980 (London: Croom Helm).Google Scholar
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    Paul Gochet, Outline of a Nominalist Theory of Propositions. An Essay in the Theory of Meaning and in the Philosophy of Logic (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1980). This book is a translation, incorporating substantial revisions, of Gochet’s work Esquisse d’une théorie nominaliste de la proposition (Paris: Colin, 1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Paul Gochet, Outline of a Nominalist Theory of Propositions, (Paris: Colin, 1972), p. 3.Google Scholar
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    As noted by Gochet (ibid., p. 30), there are also more practical reasons which invite us to avoid this way out: “As is well known, linguistic signs which are possible substituends for variables form a denumerably infinite set, whereas the value range for class variables is a non-denumerably infinite set—as Cantor has shown in his set theory.”Google Scholar
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    De Rijk’s major publication is his Logica Modernorum. See Lambertus Maria de Rijk, Logica Modernorum. A Contribution to the History of Early Terminist Logic (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1962–1967).Google Scholar
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    For a synthesis of de Rijk’s work on medieval philosophy, see Lambertus Maria de Rijk, Middeleeuwse wijsbegeerte. Traditie en vernieuwing (Assen and Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, 1977) 2nd rev. ed., (1980).Google Scholar
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    See Gabriël Nuchelmans, Theories of the Proposition. Ancient and Medieval Conceptions of the Bearers of Truth and Falsity (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1973), as well as his Late-Scholastic and Humanist Theories of the Proposition (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1980). A review article of the latter volume appeared in Leuvense Bijdragen, 72 (1983), 153–175, under the title “Gleanings from the History of Linguistics” (see the second part of the article).Google Scholar
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    Gabriël Nuchelmans, Taalfilosofie. Een inleiding (Muiderberg: D. Coutinho, 1978). A review of this book appeared in the Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire/Belgisch tijdschrift voor filologie en geschiedenis, 60 (1982), 564–567.Google Scholar
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    Guido Fauconnier, Massamedia en samenleving (Kapellen: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel, 1973)Google Scholar
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    See especially the publications by Mark Adriaens (strongly influenced by Greimas) and Paul Claes (influenced by Greimas, Barthes, Kristeva, Genette): Mark Adriaens, Literatuurwetenschap en linguïstiek (Leuven: Acco, 1973);Google Scholar
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    See especially the publications by Mark Adriaens (strongly influenced by Greimas) and Paul Claes (influenced by Greimas, Barthes, Kristeva, Genette): Mark Adriaens, the same, Strukturalisme, poetiek en narrativiteit (Leuven: Acco, 1978);Google Scholar
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    See especially the publications by Mark Adriaens (strongly influenced by Greimas) and Paul Claes (influenced by Greimas, Barthes, Kristeva, Genette): Mark Adriaens, the same, “Modellen voor linguistische tekstgrammatica’s,” in Methoden in de literatuurwetenschap, ed. Ch. Grivel (Muiderberg: D. Coutinho, 1978), pp. 237–260;Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, Het netwerk en de nevelvlek. Semiotische studies (Leuven: Acco, 1979).Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, As for Teun Van Dijk’s publications, I will restrict myself to the most important ones: Taal, tekst, teken: Bijdragen tot de literatuurtheorie (Amsterdam: Athenaeum, 1971);Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, Moderne liter atuurtheorie. Een eksperimentele inleiding (Amsterdam: Van Gennep, 1971);Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, Some Aspects of Text Grammars (The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1972);Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, ed., Pragmatics of Language and Literature (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1976);Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, Text and Context: Exploration in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse (London: Longman, 1977);Google Scholar
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    Paul Claes, Taal en handelen: een interdisciplinaire inleiding in de pragmatiek (Muiderberg: D. Coutinho, 1978).Google Scholar
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    See James S. Holmes, José Lambert, and Raymond Van Den Broeck, eds., Literature and Translation. New Perspectives in Literary Studies (Leuven: Acco, 1978);Google Scholar
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    André Lefevre, Translating Poetry: Seven Strategies and a Blueprint (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1975);Google Scholar
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    Raymond Van Den Broeck, Inleiding tot de vertaalwetenschap (Leuven: Acco, 1972);Google Scholar
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    Raymond Van Den Broeck, and my articles “A New Paradigm for Comparative Literature,” Poetics Today, 3 (1982), 181–184;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Raymond Van Den Broeck, “Methodological Innovation in the Comparative Study of Literature,” Canadian Journal of Comparative Literature, 9(1982), 38–45.Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “In het teken van het teken,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 31 (1969), 232–260;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “In het teken van het teken,” Language and Discourse (The Hague: Mouton, 1971);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “Taal als uitdrukking, betekenis en communicatie,” Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte, 64 (1972), 253–263;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “Expression et articulation. Une confrontation du point de vue phénoménologique et structural concernant la forme linguistique et le discours,” Revue philosophique de Louvain, 71 (1973), 72–113;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: Het denken van de grens. Vier opstellen over Derrida’s grammatologie (Leuven: Acco, 1975);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “Idéologie et sémiologie chez Locke et Condillac: la question de l’autonomie du langage devant la pensée,” Ut Videam: Contributions to an Understanding of Linguistics, ed. W. Abraham (Lisse: Peter de Ridder, 1975), pp. 225–248;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: Filosofie en taalwetenschap (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1979);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: “Une théorie linguistique sans concept de signe est-elle possible?,” in A Semiotic Landscape. Panorama sémiotique, eds. S. Chatman, U. Eco, and J. M. Klinkenberg (The Hague and New York: Mouton, 1979), pp. 341–344;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret: ed. Le Langage en contexte. Etudes philosophiques et linguistiques de pragmatique (Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 1980);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Herman Parret with Roger Van De Velde, “Structuralism in Belgium and in the Netherlands,” Semiotica, 29 (1980), 145–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: Reden von Gott. Reflexionen zur analytischen Philosophie der religiösen Sprache (Bonn: Linguistica Biblica, 1974);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: “Problemen rond een def-initie van logika,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 41 (1979), 636–669;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: “Logika in breder verband: Semiotiek en soorten taalgebruik,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 325–371;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: with W. R. de Jong, Van redenering tot firmele struktuur. Enige hoofd-stukken uit de logika (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1981); see my review in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 44 (1982), 369–370.Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: Also interesting from the semiotic point of view are de Pater’s earlier studies Les Topiques d’Aristote et la dialectique platonicienne. La méthodologie de la définition (Fribourg: Ed. St. Paul, 1965)Google Scholar
  150. 66h.
    See the following publications by Wim Antonius de Pater: Taalanalytische perspektieven op godsdienst en kunst (Antwerpen: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel, 1970). For the survey of the history of linguistics which de Pater published in 1967, see note 57.Google Scholar
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    See Gerard Verbeke, “Der Nominalismus der stoischen Logik,” Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie, 3 (1977), 36–55;Google Scholar
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    See Gerard Verbeke, “La philosophie du signe chez les Stoïciens,” in Les Stoïciens et leur logique. Actes du Colloque de Chantilly, 18–22 septembre 1976 (Paris: Vrin, 1978), pp. 401–424;Google Scholar
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    See Gerard Verbeke, “Le stoïcisme, une philosophie sans frontières,” in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, I: Von den Anfängen Rome bis zum Ausgang der Republik (Berlin and New York: W. de Gruyter, 1973), pp. 3–43;Google Scholar
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    See Gerard Verbeke, and several contributions to Ritter’s Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie. A bibliography (up to 1976) of Verbeke’s writings has been compiled by Willy Vanhamel, “Gerard Verbeke—Notice bio-bibliographique,” in Images of Man in Ancient and Medieval Thought. Studia Gerardo Verbeke ab Amicis et Collegis Dicata (Leuven: University Press, 1976), pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
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    See Gerard Verbeke, On Stoic philosophy of language, see also my survey article “Logica en grammatica bij de Stoa,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 45 (1983), 256–260.Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, LinguistikSemiotikHermeneutik, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 41 (1979), 530–531;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of R. Jakobson, Coup d’oeil sur le développement de la sémiotique, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 41 (1979), 531–532;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of E. Walther, Allgemeine Zeichenlehre, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 41 (1979), 532–533;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “The Linguistic Conceptions of the Encyclopédie,” Lingua, 49 (1979), 239–253;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La Base leibnizienne des déchiffrements de G. F. Grotefend,” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 10 (1979), 125–132;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La sémiotique à la recherche de l’essence des sens,” Linguisticae Investigationes, 4 (1980), 420–430;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Taal en taalkunde in de Encyclopédie,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 372–384;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Linguistic Considerations on Reference,” in The Semantics of Determiners, ed. J. van der Auwera (London: Croom Helm, 1980), pp. 166–188;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of J. Culler, Saussure, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 189;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of S. Auroux, La Sémiotique des encyclopédistes, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 404–406;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of T. A. Sebeok ed. The Teil-Tale Sign, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 42 (1980), 834–836;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of J. Trentman ed. Vincent Ferrer: Tractatus de suppositionibus, Studies in Language, 4 (1980), 426–432;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Sur l’histoire du terme “valeur” en linguistique,” Revue roumaine de linguistique, 26 (1981), 145–150;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Taalpragmatiek en taalfilosofie,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 730–733;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La grammaire dans l’Encyclopédie: Signe et sens,” Romanische Forschungen, 93 (1981), 122–137;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Two Dimensions in Karl Bühler’s Sign Theory,” Ars Semeiotica, 4 (1981), 53–56;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La théorie du signe à Port-Royal,” Semiotica, 35 (1981), 267–285;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “The Supermaxim of Conversation,” Dialectica, 35 (1981), 303–306;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of A. Keller, Sprachphilosophie, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 196–197;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of Zeichen, Text, Sinn. Zur Semiotik des literarischen Verstehens, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 765;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of B. Malmberg, Signes et symboles, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 771;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, review of R. Jakobson, The Framework of Language, Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 773–775;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La sémiotique de Condillac ou la pensée dans la pensée,” in Condillac et lesproblèmes du langage, ed. J. Sgard (Genève: Slatkine, 1982), pp. 221–242;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Lost in the Semiotic Landscape,” Semiotica, 38 (1982), 369–380;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “On Pragmatics and Nominalism,” Semiotica, 48 (1984);Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Théorie de la grammaire et théorie des signes chez les encyclopédistes,” Semiotica, 40 (1982), 89–105;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “Maupertuis sur l’origine du langage,” Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 215 (1982), 163–169;Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: review of E. Holenstein, “La Grammaire de Port-Royal et le parallélisme logico-grammatical,” to appear in Orbis (1984).Google Scholar
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    A. J. Van Zoest, Semiotiek. Over tekens, hoe ze werken en wat we ermee doen (Baarn: Ambo, 1978);Google Scholar
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    A. J. Van Zoest, “De bruikbaarheid van Peirce’s begrip ‘icon’ bij het benoemen van bepaalde verschijnselen in (bijv.) Franse poëzie,” Handelingen van het 32e Nederlandse Filologencongres, 5–7 april 1972 (Amsterdam: Universiteitspers, 1974), 187–193. In 1977, Theresa Calvet de Magalhaes submitted a doctoral dissertation, supervised by Jean Ladrière at the Université catholique de Louvain, on Peirce’s semiotic theory. The thesis was published under the title Signe ou symbole. Introduction à la théorie sémiotique de C. S. Peirce (Louvain-la-Neuve and Madrid: Cabay, 1981). A review of this study appeared in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 46 (1984), 358–359.Google Scholar
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    See Thomas A. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962); rev. ed. (1970);Google Scholar
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    See Thomas A. Kuhn, for the role of institutional and societal factors in science, see also Joseph Agassi, Science and Society (Dordrecht and Boston: Reidel, 1981).Google Scholar
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    See Dell Hymes and John Fought, “American Structuralism,” in Thomas A. Sebeok, ed., Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. 13: Historiography of Linguistics, assoc. eds. Hans Aarsleff, Robert Austerlitz, Dell Hymes, and Edward Stan-kiewicz (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 903–1176;Google Scholar
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    See Dell Hymes and John Fought, an updated version was published in book form under the same title (The Hague: Mouton, 1981). See my review in Language in Society, 12 (1983), 371–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 73.
    The journal Degrés: Revue de synthèse à orientation sémiologique (Brussels) is less semiotically oriented than its subtitle might suggest; the general background of this journal seems to be (a philosophically interpreted version of) European structuralism.Google Scholar
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    See the following publications: J. Lambert, “Plaidoyer pour un programme des études comparatistes. Littérature comparée et théorie du polysystème,” to appear in the Actes du Congrès de la Société Française de Littérature générale et comparée, Montpellier, 18–21 septembre 1980;Google Scholar
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    J. Lambert, “Production, tradition et importation: une clef pour la description de la littérature et de la littérature en traduction,” Revue Canadienne de Littérature Comparée, 7 (1980), 246–252;Google Scholar
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    J. Lambert, “Théorie de la littérature et théorie de la traduction en France (1800–1850) interprétées à partir de la théorie du polysystème,” I. Even-Zohar and G. Toury, eds., Translation Theory and Intercultural Relations (special issue of Poetics Today), 1981, pp. 161–171;Google Scholar
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    J. Lambert, “L’éternelle question des frontières: littératures nationales et systèmes littéraires,” in Langue, Dialecte, Littérature. Etudes romanes à la mémoire de Hugo Plomteux, G. Angelet, L. Melis, F. J. Mertens, and F. Musarra, eds. (Leuven: University Press, 1983), pp. 355–370;Google Scholar
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    J. Lambert and H. Van Gorp, “Geschiedenis, theorie en systeem: valse dilemma’s in de literatuurwetenschap,” Spektator, 10 (1980 – 1981), 514–519;Google Scholar
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    J. Lambert and H. Van Gorp, “Describing Translations,” to appear in Th. Hermans, ed., The Manipulation of Literature. Essays on Translated Literature (London: Groom Helm);Google Scholar
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    L. D’Hulst, L’Évolution de la poésie en France (1780–1830). Introduction à une analyse des interférences systémiques (Leuven, Ph.D. diss., 1982).Google Scholar
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    Contexts of understanding (P&B, 1:6, 1980); Structural Semiotics and Integrated Pragmatics. An Evaluative Comparison of Conceptual Frameworks (P&B, IV:7, 1983).Google Scholar
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    See my review article of this book, in Studies in Language, 8 (1984), 415–438.Google Scholar
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    See the following publications by F. G. Droste: “Betekenistheorie: wijsgerige en taalkundige aspecten,” Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, 43 (1981), 3–17;Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Swiggers
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Philosophy and LettersBelgian National Science FoundationLouvainBelgium

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