The Water Relations of Overwintering Insects

  • Karl Erik Zachariassen


Water is the universal solvent of living organisms. Biochemical and physiological processes require an optimal interaction with water, and organisms possess efficient mechanisms to regulate the amounts and activities of extracellular and intracellular water. Terrestrial animals tend to loose water by evaporation. Insects, which are among the most successful terrestrial animals, have a cuticular exoskeleton with a low water permeability that reduces the evaporative water loss substantially (Edney, 1977).


Freezing Tolerance Nucleation Temperature Freezing Rate Fluid Fraction Freezing Injury 
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© Chapman and Hall 1991

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  • Karl Erik Zachariassen

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