Implications of Cold Hardiness for Pest Management

  • J. S. Bale


Agriculture is a world-wide industry with the task of providing sufficient food to feed an ever-expanding global population. Although few countries are self-sufficient in all the agricultural products they require, most of the developed nations cooperate in a system of international trade to ensure a stable food supply for their people. For many developing countries, the export of fruits and vegetables is the mainstay of their economies, whereas, in others, the combined effects of poor quality land, drought, pests, diseases, insecticide resistance, and inadequate crop protection have resulted in years of extreme poverty and famine.


Biological Control Natural Enemy Pest Management Cold Tolerance Birch Forest 
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© Chapman and Hall 1991

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  • J. S. Bale

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