Cryobiology of Drosophila Melanogaster Embryos
The common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is the subject of investigation in many diverse areas of biology. It has been studied intensively by geneticists, developmental and molecular biologists, neurobiologists, population and evolutionary biologists, entomologists, and chronobiologists. Currently, interest in D. melanogaster is most intense among molecular biologists, but studies of D. melanogaster have a long and distinguished history, dating back to Thomas Hunt Morgan in the first decade of this century. As a result of both past and present activity, there is an enormous number of D. melanogaster genetic stocks. In 1985 it was estimated that the number of different stocks was in excess of 30,000 and was rapidly increasing because of the increased number of investigators studying Drosophila, the increased number of large scale mutant screens, and the generation of new stocks by DNA transformation. Since then, the number of mutant stocks is even greater, especially since so many germ line transformants have been obtained; for example, in Drosophila Information Service (June 1988), some 1350 entries were recorded in the “clone list.” Many of these clones have been reinserted in several different places in the germ line via P-element mediated transformation. We estimate that over 50,000 different genetic lines of D. melanogaster are now maintained in national and international stock centers and in the laboratories of individual investigators.
KeywordsCold Shock Osmotic Dehydration Chilling Injury Drosophila Melanogaster Embryo Subzero Temperature
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