Overwintering of Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates

  • Mark W. Oswood
  • L. Keith Miller
  • John G. IronsIII


Although temperature has long been recognized as a key variable in aquatic ecosystems, the consequences of freezing have received relatively little attention. At high elevations and latitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting differential survival of organisms and hence the abundance and community composition of freshwater organisms. Ice may occur in several forms in freshwater systems (surface ice, frozen substrate, frazil ice, and anchor ice), each with different consequences for the biota (Fig. 15.1).


Littoral Zone Freezing Tolerance Aquatic Insect Benthic Organism Cold Hardiness 
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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark W. Oswood
  • L. Keith Miller
  • John G. IronsIII

There are no affiliations available

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