Advertisement

The Impact of Telecommunications Technologies on Informal Communication in Science and Engineering—Research Needs and Opportunities

  • C. Ganz
  • J. D. Goldhar
Part of the Nato Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 6)

Abstract

Over the last fifteen years, there has been increased interest in the storage, dissemination, and use of scientific and technical information. In looking for ways to increase the rate at which scientific knowledge accumulates and innovation progresses, science policy makers have supported an extensive body of research aimed at reducing the costs of information transfer and improving the timeliness of information available to the scientist and engineer. Technology-based advances in computer-controlled printing, machine-indexing, micro-reproduction, remote computer access, time-sharing, and cathode displays have been and are increasing the efficiency of the information-handling procedures used by scientific and technical professionals.

Keywords

Innovation Process Information Transfer Formal Channel Interpersonal Communication Informal Communication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Thomas J. Allen, Managing the Flow of Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Murray Turoff, “An Intellectual On-Line Community,” paper prepared for AAAS Annual Meeting, February, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Jacques F. Vallee, “Impact of a Computer-Based Communications Network on the Working Patterns of Researchers: Design for Evaluation of Effects Related to Productivity,” American Sociological Association, Annual Meeting, N.Y., August 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Stuart L. Meyer, Video Image Transfer Using Slow-Scan TV Terminals, NSF-DSI 76–09479, National Science Foundation, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    William J. Paisley, “Information Needs and Uses,” ARIST, 1968.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    E. Moore, “Information Needs and Uses,” ARIST, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    John Martyn, “Information Needs and Uses,” ARIST, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    H. Menzel, “The Flow of Information Among Scientists,” Columbia University, Bureau of Applied Social Research, New York, May 1958.Google Scholar
  9. Saul Hemer, “The Information-Gathering Habits of American Medical Scientists,” Proceedings of the (1958) International Conference on Scientific Information.Google Scholar
  10. Christopher Scott, “The Use of the Technical Literature by Industrial Technologists,” Proceedings of the (1958) International Conference on Scientific Information.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    T. J. Allen, “Managing the Flow of Scientific and Technical Information,” unpublished doctoral dissertation, MIT, Sloan School of Management, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    Donald C. Pelz and F. M. Andrews, Scientists in Organizations, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1966.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    R. Rosenbloom and F. W. Wolek, Technology and Information Transfer, (Boston, Harvard Business School, 1970).Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    G. F. Farris, “Organizational Factors and Individual Performance, A Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1969, pp. 87–92.Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    C. W. Shilling, J. Bernard, and J. W. Tyson, “Informal Communication Among Bioscientists,” Washington, D.C., George Washington University, Biosciences Communication Project, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    E. Parker, W. Paisley, and Roger Garrett, “Bibliographic Citations on Unobstrusive Measures of Scientific Communications,” Stanford Institute for Communication Research, Stanford, California, October, 1967.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Diane Crane, Invisible Colleges, University of Chicago Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. (18).
    H. Menzel, “Planning the Consequences of Unplanned Action in Scientific Communication,” Communication in Science (Reuch and Knight, editors) London, and A. Churchill Ltd. 1967.Google Scholar
  19. Francis W. Wolek, “Policy and Informal Communications in Applied Science and Technology,” Science Studies, 4, 1974, pp. 411–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geoffrey Newman, “An Institutional Perspective on Information,” International Social Science Journal, (UNESCO) Vol. XXVIII, No. 3, 1976.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    J. D. Goldhar, L. K. Bragaw, J. J. Schwartz, “Information Flows, Management Styles, and Technological Innovation,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-23, No. 1, February 1976.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Francis W. Wolek, “Preparation for Interpersonal Communication,” JASIS, January-February 1972, Vol. 23 No. 1, pp. 3–10.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Albert Shapero, “You Can’t Do it All Long Distance,” Fortune, February 1977.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Ron Johnston and Michael Gibbons, “Characteristics of Information Use in Technological Innovation,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. EM-22, No. 1, February 1975.Google Scholar
  25. Wolek, “Preparation” op. cit.Google Scholar
  26. Wolek, “Preparation” op. cit.Google Scholar
  27. Newman, op. cit. p 472.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    William D. Garvey, et al., “Research Studies in Patterns of Scientific Communication,” Information Storage and Retrieval, Volumes 8, 10, (1972).Google Scholar
  29. Allen, 1966, op. cit.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Patrick Kelly, Melvin Kranzberg, The Flow of Information in the Innovation Process, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Albert H. Rubinstein, et al.. Field Experiments on Key Communicators, Northwestern University, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Ganz
    • 1
  • J. D. Goldhar
    • 1
  1. 1.National Science FoundationUSA

Personalised recommendations