Advertisement

Methanogenesis in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digesters: Monitoring and Control Based on Dissolved Hydrogen

  • T. N. Whitmore
  • G. Jones
  • M. Lazzari
  • D. Lloyd

Abstract

An increased awareness of the necessity to protect surface waters from the high chemical oxygen demand (COD) effluents from many industries, including abattoirs, dairies and food processing plants, has led to a renewed interest in economic treatment systems, in order to avoid the cost of disposal the local water treatment authority (Bull et al., 1984). The costs involved in aerating high strength waste waters in traditional aerobic treatment plants have led to a resurgence of interest in the anaerobic digestion system. Cillie et al. (1969) concluded that for waste waters with a COD of 4 g 1−1 or more anaerobic processes are cheaper, whilst at a COD of 20 g 1−1 anaerobic systems cost 25 % of equivalent aerobic processes.

Keywords

Chemical Oxygen Demand Anaerobic Digester Volatile Fatty Acid Anaerobic Digestion System Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archer, D.B., 1983, The microbiological basis of process control in methanogenic fermentation of soluble waters, Enzyme Microb. Tech., 5: 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balch, W.E., Fox, G.E., Magrum, L.J., Woese, C.R. and Wolfe, R.S., 1979, Methano- gens: reevaluation of an unique biological group, Microbiol. Rev., 43: 260.Google Scholar
  3. Bohatka, S., Langer, G., Szilagyi, J. and Berecz, I., 1983, Gas concentration determinations in fermenters with quadrupole mass spetrometry, Int. T. Mass Spetrom. Ion Phys., 48: 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boone, D.R., 1982, Terminal reactions in the anaerobic digestion of animal waste, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 43: 57–64.Google Scholar
  5. Boone, D.R. and Bryant, M.P., 1980, Propionate-degrading bacterium, Syntropho -bacter wolinii sp. nov., gen nov., from methanogenic ecosystems, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 40: 626.Google Scholar
  6. Brock, T.D., 1985, Life at High Temperatures, Science, 230: 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bryant, M.D., 1979, T. Animal Science, 48: 193.Google Scholar
  8. Bull, M.A., Sterritt, R.M. and Lester, J.N., 1984, Developments of anaerobic treatment of high strength waste waters, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 64: 203.Google Scholar
  9. Cillie, G.G., Henzen, M.R., Stander, G.J. and Baillie, T.D., 1969, Anaerobic digestion - IV. The application of the process in waste purification, Water Res, 3: 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Conrad, R., Phelps, T.J. and Zeikus, J.G., 1985, Gas metabolism evidence in support of the juxtaposition of hydrogen-producing and methanogenic bacteria in sewage sludge and lake sediments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 50: 595.Google Scholar
  11. Cornish-Bowden, A., 1975, “Principles of Enzyme Kinetics”; Butterworths Inc., Boston.Google Scholar
  12. Heyes, R.H. and Hall, R.J., 1983, Kinetics of two subgroups of propionate-using organisms in anaerobic digestion, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 46: 710.Google Scholar
  13. Jewell, W.J., Switzenbaum, M.S. and Morris, J.W., 1981, Municipal waste water treatment with the anaerobic attached microbial film expanded bed process, L Water Pollut. Control Fed. 53: 482.Google Scholar
  14. Lloyd, D., Bohatka, S. and Szilagyi, J., 1985, Quadrupole mass spetrometry in the monitoring and control of fermentations, Biosensors 1: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lloyd, D. and Scott, R.I., 1983, Direct measurement of dissolved gases in micro-biological systems using membrane inlet mass spetrometry, T. Microbiol. Meth., 1: 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mackie, R.I. and Bryant, M.P., 1981, Metabolic activity of fatty acid-oxidising bacteria and the contribution of acetate, propionate, butyrate and CO2 to methanogenesis in cattle waste at 40 and 60 °C, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 41: 363.Google Scholar
  17. Mosey, F.E., 1982, New developments in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastes, Water Pollut. Cont., 81: 540–552.Google Scholar
  18. McInerney, M.J., Mackie, F.I. and Bryant, M.P., 1981 Syntrophic association of a butyrate-degrading bacterium and Methanosarcina enriched from bovine rumen fluid, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 826.Google Scholar
  19. Pfeiffer, W., Temper, U., Steiner, A., Carozzi, A. and von Muecke, I., 1986, Anaerobic waste water treatment results of a literature review. In: “Aquatech 86, Water Treatment Conference Proceedings”, pp. 211–232. Industrial Presentations, Schiedam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  20. Pohland, F.G. and Bloodgood, D.E., 1963, Laboratory studies on mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion, T. Water Pollut. Cont. Fed., 35: 11.Google Scholar
  21. Robinson, J.A. and Tiedje, J.M., 1982, Kinetics of hydrogen consumption by rumen fluid, anaerobic digester sludge and sediment, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 44: 1374.Google Scholar
  22. Schonheit, P., Moll, J. and Thauer, R.K., 1980, Growth parameters (Ks, µman YS) of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Arch. Microbiol., 127: 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Scott, R.I., Williams, T.N., Whitmore, T.N. and Lloyd, D., 1983, Direct measurement of methanogenesis in anaerobic digesters by membrane inlet mass spectrometry, Eur. T. Appl. Microbiol., 18: 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thauer, R.K., Jungermann, K. and Decker, K., 1977, Energy conservation in chemotrophic anaerobes, Bact. Rev., 41: 100.Google Scholar
  25. Whitmore, T.N., Jones, G. and Lloyd, D., 1987, Optimisation of a mass spectrometric control system for the anaerobic digestion process based on levels of dissolved hydrogen, T. Biotechnol. (In Press).Google Scholar
  26. Zinder, S.H., Cardwell, S.C., Anguish, T., Lee, M. and Koch, M., 1984, Methanogenesis in a thermophilic (58 °C) anaerobic digester: Methanothrix sp. as an important aceticlastic methanogen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 47: 796.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. N. Whitmore
    • 1
  • G. Jones
    • 2
  • M. Lazzari
    • 3
  • D. Lloyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity CollegeCardiffWales, UK
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity CollegeCardiffWales, UK
  3. 3.Instituto Ingegneri AgrariaMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations