Advertisement

Systems Tracts, Seismic Facies, and Attribute Analysis Within a Sequence-Stratigraphic Framework—Example from the Offshore Louisiana Gulf Coast

  • Jory A. Pacht
  • Bruce Bowen
  • Bernard L. Shaffer
  • William R. Pottorf
Part of the Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology book series (SEDIMENTARY)

Abstract

Seismic stratigraphy has developed almost as three separate disciplines. The first, pioneered by Vail and others (1977), is seismic sequence analysis. Sequence analysis is the study of recognizing and correlating regional stratal surfaces to define genetically related rock units that represent discrete chronostratigraphic intervals (Van Wagoner et al., 1988). Seismic data are used extensively in sequence stratigraphy, as primary seismic reflections are generated by time-correlative bedding surfaces, and surfaces that separate sets of contemporaneous depositional systems (systems tracts) (Van Wagoner et al., 1988).

Keywords

Gulf Coast System Tract Highstand System Tract Transgressive System Tract Seismic Facies 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anstey, N.A., 1980, Seismic exploration for sandstone reservoirs: (International Human Resources Development Corporation), Boston, 138 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armentrout, J.M., 1987, Testing a benthic foraminiferal biofacies model—Plio Pleistocene, Gulf of Mexico, integration of biostratigraphy and seismic stratigraphy: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Eighth Annual Research Conference, Proceedings, p. 6-14.Google Scholar
  3. Armentrout, J.M., 1990, Integrated stratigraphic analysis: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Short Course Notes, Course #1, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
  4. Balch, A.H., Lee, M.W., Miller, J.J., and Ryder, R.T., 1981, Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with the First Leo sandstone lenses, eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Geophysics, v. 46, p. 1519–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard J.H., 1969, Pleistocene paleotemperature record based on planktonic foraminifers, Gulf of Mexico: Gulf Coast Association of Geologic Societies, Transactions, v. 19, p. 535–553.Google Scholar
  6. Beard, J.H., Sangree, J.B., and Smith, L.A., 1982, Quaternary chronology, paleoclimate, depositional sequences and eustatic cycles: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 66, p. 158–169.Google Scholar
  7. Bouma A.H., Coleman, J.M., and Meyer, A.H., 1986, Introduction, objectives and principal results of Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 96, in Bouma, A.H., Coleman, J.M., Meyer, A.H., and others, Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, v. 96: U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., p. 533–540.Google Scholar
  8. Bowen, B.E., Shaffer, B.L., and Pacht, J.A., 1989, Seismic identification and the use of condensed sections in the Plio-Pleistocene Gulf of Mexico: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Expanded Abstracts, 1989 Technical Program, v. 2, p. 801–802.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, L.F., and Fisher, W.L., 1977, Seismic stratigraphic interpretation and petroleum exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series, No. 16, 56 p.Google Scholar
  10. Domenico, S.N., 1974, Effect of water saturation on seismic reflectivity of sand reservoirs encased in shale: Geophysics, v. 39, p. 759–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Domenico, S.N., 1980, Velocity and lithology, in Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic data school, course notes: American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 1-62.Google Scholar
  12. Ensley, M.B., 1980, Interpretation of stratigraphy and lithofacies from seislogs, in Stratigraphic interpretation of seismic data school, course notes: American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 5.1-5.16.Google Scholar
  13. Feeley, M.H., Moore, T.C., Loutit, T.S., and Bryant, W.R., 1990, Sequence stratigraphy of the Mississippi Fan related to oxygen isotope index: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 74, p. 407–424.Google Scholar
  14. Galloway, W.E., 1975, Process framework for describing the morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of deltaic depositional systems, in Broussard, M.L., ed., Deltas: Models for exploration: Houston Geologic Society, Houston, Texas, p. 87–98.Google Scholar
  15. Gardner, G.H.F., Gardner, L.W., and Gregory, A.R., 1974, Formation velocity and density—the diagnostic basis for stratigraphic traps: Geophysics, v. 39, p. 770–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gassman, F., 1951, Elastic waves through a packing of spheres: Geophysics, v. 15, p. 673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J., and Vail, P.R., 1987, Chronology of fluctuating sea-levels since the Triassic (250 million years to the present): Science, v. 235, p. 1156–1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harms, J.C., and Tackenburg, P., 1972, Seismic signatures and sedimentation models: Geophysics, v. 37, p. 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jervey, M.T., 1988, Quantitative geological modeling of siliciclastic rock sequences and their seismic expression, in Wilgus, C.K., and others, eds., Sea-level changes: An integrated approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 42, p. 47–70.Google Scholar
  20. Loutit, T.S., Hardenbol, J., Vail, P.R., and Baum, G.R., 1988, Condensed sections: The key to age dating and correlation of continental margin sequences, in Wilgus, C.K., and others, eds., Sea-level changes: An integrated approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 42, p. 183–213.Google Scholar
  21. McHargue, T.R., and Webb, J.E., 1986, Internal geometry, seismic facies and petroleum potential of canyons and inner fan channels of the Indus Submarine Fan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, p. 161–180.Google Scholar
  22. Mitchum, R.M., Sangree, J.B., Vail, P.R., and Wornardt, W.W., 1990, Sequence stratigraphy in the Late Cenozoic expanded sections, Gulf of Mexico, in Sequence Stratigraphy as an Exploration Tool: Concepts and Practices in the Gulf Coast, Eleventh Annual Research Conference: Gulf Coast Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, p. 237-256.Google Scholar
  23. Pacht, J.A., Beard, J.H., Weisser, G., Bouma, A.H., Bowen, B.E., and Vail, P.R., 1989, Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of Plio-Pleistocene depositional facies, East and West Cameron, offshore Louisiana: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Expanded Abstracts, 1989 Technical Program, v. 2, p. 801–802.Google Scholar
  24. Pacht, J.A., Bowen, B.E., Beard, J.H., and Shaffer, B.L., 1990a, Sequence stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene depositional facies in the offshore Louisiana South Additions, Gulf Coast Association of Geologic Societies, v. 40, p. 643–660.Google Scholar
  25. Pacht, J.A., Bowen, B.E., and Pottorf, W.R., 1990b, Sequence stratigraphy in the offshore Louisiana Gulf Coast—Applications to hydrocarbon exploration, in Sequence stratigraphy as an exploration tool: Concepts and Practices in the Gulf Coast: Gulf Coast Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Eleventh Annual Research Conference, Proceedings, p. 269-285.Google Scholar
  26. Pearlmutter, M.A., 1985, Deep-water clastic reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico: A depositional model: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 5, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Posamentier, H.W., Jervey, M.T., and Vail, P.R., 1988, Eustatic controls on clastic deposition, I—Conceptual framework, in Wilgus, C.K., and others, eds., Sea-level changes: An integrated approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 42, p. 109–125.Google Scholar
  28. Posamentier, H.W. and Vail, P.R., 1988, Eustatic controls on clastic deposition II—sequence and systems tracts models, in Wilgus, C.K. and others, eds., Sea-level changes: An integrated approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 42, p. 125–154.Google Scholar
  29. Rutherford, S.R., and Williams, R.H., 1989, Amplitude with offset variation in gas sands: Geophysics, v. 54, p. 680–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sengbush, R.L., 1962, Stratigraphic trap study in Cottonwood Creek Field, Big Horn Basin: Geophysics, v. 27, p. 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaffer, B.L., 1987, The potential of calcareous nannofossils for recognizing Plio-Pleistocene climatic cycles and sequence boundaries on the shelf: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Eighth Annual Research Conference Proceedings, p. 142-145.Google Scholar
  32. Shaffer, B.L., 1990, The nature and significance of condensed sections in Gulf Coast late Neogene stratigraphy: Gulf Coast Association of Geologic Societies, v. 40, p. 767–776.Google Scholar
  33. Slatt, R.M., Robinson, J.C., Lighty, K.A., and Moore, G.F., 1987, Seismic reflection character analysis of stratigraphic traps in Cretaceous Cardium Formation, Alberta Canada: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, p. 298–307.Google Scholar
  34. Trainor, D.W., and Williams, D.F., 1990, Quantitative analysis and correlation of oxygen isotope record from planktonic and benthonic foraminifera and well log records from OCS well G-1267 No. A-1 South Timbalier, Block 198, northcentral Gulf of Mexico, in Sequence stratigraphy as an exploration tool: Concepts and practices in the Gulf Coast: Eleventh Annual Research Conference, Gulf Coast Section Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, p. 237-256.Google Scholar
  35. Vail, P.R., 1987, Seismic stratigraphy interpretation procedure, in Bally, A.W., ed., Atlas of seismic stratigraphy, Volume I: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Studies in Geology No. 27, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  36. Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M., Todd, R.G., Widmier, J.M., Thompson, S., Sangree, J.B., Bubb, J.N., and Hatelid, W.G., 1977, Seismic stratigraphy and global changes in sea-level, in Payton, C.E., ed., Seismic stratigraphy—Application to hydrocarbon exploration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, p. 49–212.Google Scholar
  37. Van Wagoner, J.C., Posamentier, H.W., Mitchum, R.M., Vail, P.R., Sarg, J.F., Loutit, T.S., and Hardenbol, J., 1988, An overview of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions, in Wilgus, C.K., and others, eds., Sea-level changes: An integrated approach: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 42, p. 39–48.Google Scholar
  38. Weimer, P., 1989, Sequence stratigraphy of the Mississippi Fan (Plio-Pleistocene), Gulf of Mexico: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 9, p. 185–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weimer, P., 1990, Sequence stratigraphy, facies geometry, and depositional history of the Mississippi Fan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 74, p. 425–453.Google Scholar
  40. Williams, D.G., 1984, Correlation of Pleistocene marine sediments of the Gulf of Mexico and other basins using oxygen isotope stratigraphy, in Healy-Williams, N., ed., Principles of Pleistocene stratigraphy applied to the Gulf of Mexico: (International Human Resources Development Corporation), Boston, Massachusetts, p. 65–118.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, D.F., Thunell, R.C., Tappa, E., Rio, D., and Raffi, I., 1988, Chronology of the Pleistocene oxygen isotope record: 0-1.88 m.y.B.P.: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 64, p. 221–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Winker, C.D., 1982, Cenozoic shelf margins, northwestern Gulf of Mexico Basin: Gulf Coast Association of Geologic Societies Transactions, v. 32, p. 427–448.Google Scholar
  43. Winker, C.D., and Edwards, M.B., 1983, Unstable progradational continental clastic shelf margins, in Stanley, D.J., and Moore, G.T., eds., The Shelfbreak, Critical Interface on Continental Margins: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 33, p. 121–137.Google Scholar
  44. Wornardt, W.W., and Vail, P.R., 1990, Revision of the Plio-Pleistocene cycles and their application to sequence stratigraphy of shelf and slope sediments in the Gulf of Mexico, in Sequence Stratigraphy as an Exploration Tool: Concepts and Practices in the Gulf Coast: Eleventh Annual Research Conference, Gulf Coast Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, p. 237-256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jory A. Pacht
  • Bruce Bowen
  • Bernard L. Shaffer
  • William R. Pottorf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations