Advertisement

Historical Aspects of the Cholinergic Transmission

  • Alexander G. Karczmar
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 295)

Abstract

My long-held personal opinion that the transmission phenomena are more exciting than other physiological and pharmacological events may be subjective and biased, but there cannot be any doubt that the synaptic or junctional phenomena generally, and the cholinergic transmission specifically, constitute most rewarding processes, both intellectually and aesthetically. Nevertheless, I will try to prove this truism.

Keywords

Cholinergic System Inhibitory Synapse Cholinergic Transmission Motor Nerve Terminal Renshaw Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ader, R., Feiten, D., and Cohen, N., 1990, Interactions between the brain and the immune system, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.. 30:561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aquilonius, S.-M., and P.-G. Gillberg, ed.: Cholinergic.Neurotransmission: Functional and Clinical Aspects. Nobel Symposia, Stockholm, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. Augustinsson, K.B., 1948, A study in comparative enzymology, Acta Physiol. Scand. 15, Suppl. 52, 1.Google Scholar
  4. Augustinsson, K.B., 1963, Classification and comparative enzymology of cholinesterases, and methods for their determination, in: “Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents”, Hdbch. d. Exptl. Pharmakol., Ergänzungswerk, G.B. Koelie, ed., Springer, Berlin, 15(4):89.Google Scholar
  5. Bacq, Z.M., 1975, “Chemical Transmission of Nerve Impulses”. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Baghdoyan, H.A., Rodrigo-Angulo, M.L., McCarley, R.W., and Hobson, J.A., 1987, A neuroanatomical gradient in the pontine tegmentum for the cholinoceptive induction of desynchronized-sleep signs, Brain Res., 414:245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bovet, D., 1959, Rapports entre constitution chimique et activite pharmacodynamique dans quelques series de curares de synthese, in: “Curare and Curare-like Agents”, D. Bovet, F. Bovet-Nitti and G.B. Martini-Bettolo, eds., Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, p. 252.Google Scholar
  8. Brazier, M.A.B., 1959, The historical development of neurophysiology, in: “Neurophysiology”, H.W. Magoun, ed., Handbk. Physiol. 1:1, Am. Physiol. Soc., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Chagas, C. and Paes de Carvalho, A., eds., 1961, “Bioelectrogenesis. Comparative Survey of its Mechanisms, with Special Emphasis on Electric Fishes”, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Costa, E., Hanbauer, I., andCuidotti, A., 1987, Receptor-receptor interactions in the modulation of nicotinic receptors in adrenal medulla, in: “Neurobiology of Acetylcholine”, Symposium Held in Honor of Alexander G. Karczmar, N.J. Dun and R.L. Perlman, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 355.Google Scholar
  11. Dun, F.T., and Feng, T.P., 1940, Studies on the neuromuscular junction,. The site of origin of the junctional after-discharge in muscles treated with guanidine, barium or eserine, Chinese J. Physiol. 15:433.Google Scholar
  12. Eccles, J.C., 1987, The story of the Renshaw Cell, in: “Neurobiology of Acetylcholine”, Symposium Held in Honor of Alexander G. Karczmar, N.J. Dun and R.L. Perlman, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 189.Google Scholar
  13. Eccles, J.C., Fatt, P., and Koketsu, K., 1953, Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a central nervous pathway. The Australian J. Sei. 16:50.Google Scholar
  14. Eccles, J.C., Fatt, P., and Koketsu, K., 1954, Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to motoneurons, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 126:524.Google Scholar
  15. Eccles, R.M., and Libet, B., 1961, Origin and blockade of the synaptic responses of curarized sympathetic ganglia. J. Physiol. (Lond), 157:484.Google Scholar
  16. Feng, T.P., Li, T.H. and Ting, Y.C. 1939, Studies on the neuromuscular junction, XII. Repetitive discharges and inhibitory after-effect in post-tetanically facilitated responses of cat muscles to single nerve volleys, Chinese J. Physiol., 14:55.Google Scholar
  17. Feng, T.P., and Li, T.H. 1941, Studies on the neuromuscular junction, XIII. A new aspect of the phenomenon of eserine potentiation and post-tetanic facilitation in mammalian muscles, Chinese J. Physiol.. 16:37.Google Scholar
  18. Greengard, P., 1978, Cyclic Nucleotides, Phosphorylated Proteins and Neuronal Function. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Greengard, P., and Kebabian, J.W., 1974, Role of cyclic AMP in s)niaptic transmission in the mammalian peripheral nervous system. Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33:1059.Google Scholar
  20. Hokin, M.R., and Hokin, L.E., 1960, The role of phosphatidic acid and phosphoionositide in transmembrane transport elicited by acetylcholine and other humoral agents. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 2:99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holmstedt, B., 1972, The ordeal bean of old calabar: The pageant of physostigma venenosum in medicine, in: “Plants in the Development of Modern Medicine”, T. Swain, ed., pp. 303–360, Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  22. Holmstedt, B., and Liljestrand, G., 1963, “Readings in Pharmacology”, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. Karczmar, A.G., 1957, Antagonism between a bis-quaternary oxamide, WIN 8078, and depolarizing and competitive blocking agents, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 119:39.Google Scholar
  24. Karczmar, A.G., 1967, Pharmacologic, toxicologic and therapeutic properties of anticholinesterase agents, in: “Physiological Pharmacology”, W.S. Root, and F.G. Hofman, eds., 3:163.Google Scholar
  25. Karczmar, A.G., 1976, Central actions of acetylcholine, cholinomimetics and related drugs, in: “Biology of Cholinergic Function”, A.M. Goldberg, and I. Hanin, eds.. Raven Press, New York, p. 395.Google Scholar
  26. Karczmar, A.G., 1979, Brain acetylcholine and animal electrophysiology, in “Brain Acetylcholine and Neuropsychiatric Disease”, K.L. Davis and P.A. Berger, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karczmar, A.G., 1980, Drugs, transmitters and hormones and mating behavior, in: “Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry”, T. Ban, ed.. Karger, Basel, Vol. 5, p. 1.Google Scholar
  28. Karczmar, A.G., 1984, Acute and long lasting central actions of organophosphorus agents. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 2:SI.Google Scholar
  29. Karczmar, A.G., 1987, Concluding remarks: past, present and future of cholinergic research, in: “Neurobiology of Acetylcholine”, Symposium Held in Honor of Alexander G. Karczmar, N.J. Dun and R.L. Perlman, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 561.Google Scholar
  30. Karczmar, A.G., 1988, Schizophrenia and cholinergic system, in: “Receptor and Ligands in Psychiatry” A.K. Sen, and T. Lee, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 29.Google Scholar
  31. Karczmar, A.G., 1990, Physiological cholinergic functions in the CNS, in: “Cholinergic Neurotransmission: Functional and Clinical Aspects”, S.-M. Aquilonius, and P.-G. Gillberg, eds., Nobel S3rmposium, Stockholm, p. 437.Google Scholar
  32. Karczmar, A.G., 1991, “The Cholinergic System, its Pharmacology and Function”, Plenum Press, New York (in preparation).Google Scholar
  33. Karczmar, A.G., and Dun, N.J., 1986, Pharmacology of synaptic ganglionic transmission and second messengers. In: “Autonomic and Enteric Ganglia”, A.G. Karczmar, Koketsu, and S. Nishi, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 297.Google Scholar
  34. Karczmar, A.G., and Dun, N.J., 1988, Effects of anticholinesterases pertinent for SDAT treatment but not necessarily underlying their clinical effectiveness, in: “Current Research in Alzheimer Therapy: Cholinesterase Inhibitors”, E. Giacobini, and R. Becker, eds., Taylor and Francis, New York, p. 15.Google Scholar
  35. Karczmar, A.G., Nishi, S., and Blaber, L.C., 1972, Synaptic modulations, in: “Brain and Human Behavior”, A.G. Karczmar, and J.C. Eccles, eds.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koelie, G.B., 1963, Cytological distributions and physiological functions of cholinesterases, in: “Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents” G.B. Koelie, ed., Handbch. d. exper. Pharmakol., Ergänzungswerk, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 15: 187.Google Scholar
  37. Koketsu, K., 1977, Neurohumoral contr9ls of neurone activities, in: “Neurohumoral Correlates of Behavior”, S. Subrahmayan, ed., Thomson Press, Faridabad, p. 21.Google Scholar
  38. Koppanyi, T., and Sun, K.H., 1926, Comparative studies on pupillary reaction in tetrapods. II. The effect of pilocarpine and other drugs on the pupil of the rat, Amer. J. Physiol.. 75:355.Google Scholar
  39. Koppanyi, T., and Karczmar, A.G., 1951, Contribution to the study of the mechanism of action of Cholinesterase inhibitors, J. Pharm. Expt. Therap. 101:327.Google Scholar
  40. Krnjevic, K., and Straughan, D.W., 1964, The release of acetylcholine from the denervated rat diaphragm, J. Physiol. (London) 170:371.Google Scholar
  41. Kuhn, T., 1962, “Structure of Scientific Revolution”, Chicago Press, Chicago, First Edition.Google Scholar
  42. Lindgren, S., Lijestrand, G., and Zotterman, Y., 1952, The effect of certain autonomic drugs on the action potentials of the sinus nerve. Acta Physiol. Scandinav.. 26:264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Levi-Montalcini, R., 1987, “Elogio dell#x2019; Imperfezione”, Garzanti Editore, Milano.Google Scholar
  44. Massoulie, J., 1986, Polymorphism of Cholinesterase: possible insertion of the various molecular forms in cellular structures, in: “Dynamics of Cholinergic Function”, I. Hanin, ed.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 727.Google Scholar
  45. Pfeiffer, C.C., and Jenney, E.H., 1957, The inhibition of the conditioned response and the counteraction of schizophrenia by muscarinic stimulation of the brain, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 66:753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thesleff, S., 1955, The mode of neuromuscular block caused by acetylcholine, nicotine, decamethonium and succinylcholine, Acta Physiol. Scand. 34:218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thesleff, S., 1960, Supersensitivity of skeletal muscle by botulinum toxin, J. Physiol. (London) 151:598.Google Scholar
  48. Vanderwolf, C.H., 1975, Neocortical and hippocampal activation in relation to behavior: Effects of atropine, eserine, phenothiazines, and amphetamine, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 88(1):300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waser, P.G., Receptor localization by autoradiographic techniques, Acad. Sei., 144:737.Google Scholar

References for the Quiz

  1. AGK, 1946, The role of amputation and nerve resection in the regressing limbs of urodele larvae, J. Exp. Zool. 103:401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AGK, 1963, Ontogenetic effects of anticholinesterase agents, in: “Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents”, G.B. Koelie, ed., Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Ergänzungswerk., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 15:179.Google Scholar
  3. AGK, 1963, Ontogenesis of cholinesterases, in: “Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents”, G.B. Koelie, ed., Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Ergänzungswerk., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 15:179.Google Scholar
  4. AGK, 1967, Pharmacologic, toxicologic and therapeutic properties of anticholinesterase agents, in: “Physiological Pharmacology”, W.S. Root and F.G. Hofman, eds., Academic Press, Inc., 3:163.Google Scholar
  5. AGK, 1969, Is the central cholinergic nervous system overexploited? in: “Symposium on Central Cholinergic Transmission and its Behavioral Aspects”, Fed. Proc.. 28:147.Google Scholar
  6. AGK, 1972, History of the research with anticholinesterase agents, in: “Anticholinesterase Agents” AGK, ed., International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1(13):1.Google Scholar
  7. AGK, 1991, “The Cholinergic System, its Pharmacology, Physiology and Function”, Plenum Press, New York (in preparation).Google Scholar
  8. AHH, and WFR, 1963, Acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 142, 200.Google Scholar
  9. CH, 1955, Action of drugs on carotid body and sinus, Pharmacol Rev. 7:119.Google Scholar
  10. CH, 1950, Les antidotes du di-isopropylfluorophosphonate (DFP), Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn.. 81:230.Google Scholar
  11. DK, MRR, and ELB, 1966, Environmental impoverishment, social isolation and changes in brain chemistry and anatomy, Physiol. Behav. 1:99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DN, 1961, Chemical factors controlling nerve activity. Science. 134: 1962.Google Scholar
  13. DN, 1963, The chemical basis of Claude Bernard#x2019;s observations on curare, Biochem. Zeitsch. 338:454.Google Scholar
  14. DN, 1963a, Choline acetylase, in: “Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents”, G.B. Koelie, ed., Handbch. d. Exper. Pharmakol., Ergänzungswerk, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 15: 40.Google Scholar
  15. FFW, 1968, Cholinergic mechanisms in recurrent inhibition of motoneurons, in: “Psychopharmacology”, Proc. Amer. College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Goverrunent Printing Office, Public Health Service Publication No. 1836, M.A. Lipton, ed., p. 69.Google Scholar
  16. FGS and WFR, 1967, The consequences of cholinergic drug actions on motor nerve terminals, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 144:517.JCE, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. JCE, FD, and KK, 1953, Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a central nervous pathway. The Australian J. Sei.. 16:50.Google Scholar
  18. JQE, PF, and KK, 1954, Cholinergic and inhibitory synapses in a pathway from motor-axon collaterals to motoneurons, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 126:524.Google Scholar
  19. JCE, 1964, “The Physiology of Synapses”, Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. JCE, 1987, The story of the Renshaw cell, in:“ Neurobiology of Acetylcholine, a Symposium Held in Honor of Alexander G. Karczmar”, N.J. Dun, and R.L. Perlman, eds.. Plenum Press, New York, p. 189.Google Scholar
  20. MJ, 1967, Regulation neuro-humorale des etats de sommeil, in: “Aspects Biologiques et Cliniques du Systéme Nerveux Central”, Symposium de Sandoz SA, Bale, pp. 103.Google Scholar
  21. MJ, 1972, Some monoaminergic mechanisms controlling sleep and waking, in: “Brain and Human Behavior”, A.G. Karczmar and J.C. Eccles, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 131.Google Scholar
  22. MRR, DK, and ELB, 1958, in: “Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior”, H.F. Marlow and C.N. Woolsey, eds., Madison Univ. Wisconsin Press, p. 367.Google Scholar
  23. MRR, ELB, and MCD, 1967, in: “Psychopathology of Mental Development”, J. Zubin and G. Jervis, eds., New York, Grune & Stratton, p. 45.Google Scholar
  24. WFR and FGS, 1957, The motor nerve terminal as the primary focus for drug-induced facilitation of neuromuscular transmission. J. Pharmacol. EXP. Therap121 : 286.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander G. Karczmar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Stritch School of MedicneLoyola University ChicagoMaywoodUSA
  2. 2.Research ServicesHines V.A. HospitalHinesUSA

Personalised recommendations