Electrorefining and Electrodeposition of Metals
Copper is found in nature as the metal and in various types of ore such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfide, and in mixtures and double salts of these compounds. Of these, the sulfide ore, chalcopyrite Cu2S • FeS • FeS2, is commonly used in Japan. Figure 10.1 illustrates an example of the flowsheet for copper concentrate processing. The ore is treated to separate rock and to concentrate minerals. The powdered mineral is sintered and lumps are calcined with limestone to concentrate the copper as matte. Impurities, mostly as silicates, are removed in the slag. Chemical compositions of concentrate, matte, and slag are shown in Table 10.1.(1) Gas from the calcination blast furnace contains SO2 of high concentration and is sent to the sulfuric acid plant. Matte is refined in the converter in which iron sulfide reacts with silica and excess air to form silicate, while the copper compound in the matte is reduced to crude copper in a period of about 3 hr.
KeywordsPolarization Curve Hydrogen Evolution Current Efficiency Reversible Potential Cathode Surface
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Kagaku Binran (Handbook of Chemistry), New edition, p. 1502, Maruzen, Tokyo (1958).Google Scholar
- 2.Panel discussion at the first meeting of Symposia on Electrochemical Industries, sponsored by Japan Society of Chemical Engineers, Osaka, June 12, 1979.Google Scholar
- 3.C. L. Mantell, Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed., p. 149, McGraw-Hill, New York (1960).Google Scholar
- 7.C. L. Mantell, Electrochemical Engineering, 4th ed., p. 198, McGraw-Hill, New York (1960).Google Scholar
- 8.R. Remirez, Chem. Eng. p. 96 (September 8, 1969).Google Scholar
- 9.A. T. Kuhn, ed. Industrial Electrochemical Processes, p. 535, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1971).Google Scholar
- Denki Kagaku Binran (Handbook of Electrochemistry), 2nd ed., p. 971, Maruzen, Tokyo (1964).Google Scholar