Advertisement

Post Harvest Losses in Perishable Foods of the Developing World

  • D. G. Coursey
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 46)

Abstract

The majority of the papers presented to this Advanced Study Institute have been related primarily to situations relevant to the technologically advanced countries of Europe, North America and Australasia. This paper will do something to redress the balance, for it must be remembered that about a third of the world’s population lives within the Less Developed Countries (L.D.C.’s); that it is generally within the L.D.C.’s that living standards and nutritional standards are the lowest; while rates of population increase tend to be the greatest. Thus, it is within these countries, mostly within the tropics, that there is the most urgent need to increase food availability. This is not solely an ethical issue; whatever an individual’s, or a government’s, political or moral stance may be it must be accepted that a situation where such a large proportion of the world’s population are living under severely sub-optimal conditions is highly unsatisfactory, and is a destabilising force within the established world economic order.

Keywords

Sweet Potato Root Crop Chilling Injury Storage Life Post Harvest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. K. Akamine and T. Goo. Relationship between surface colour development and total soluble solids in papaya. Horticultural Sci.3 6:567 (1971).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. H. Booth. Post harvest deterioration of tropical root crops: losses and their control. Trop. Sci., 16:49 (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. H. Booth and D. G. Coursey. Storage of cassava roots and related post harvest problems. In Cassava Processing and Storage, I.D.R.C. Monograph, I.D.R.C. -031e, Int. Develop. Res. Centre, Ottawa (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. H. Booth and F. J. Proctor. Considerations relevant to the storage of ware potatoes in the tropics. PANS, 18:409 (1972).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. C. Bourne. Proposed definition of post harvest loss. Proc. Natl. Food Loss Conf., Boise, Idaho, 129 (1976).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. L. Brody and S. Sacharow. Flexible packaging of foods. Crit. Rev. Fd. Technol., 1:71 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. J. Burden and P. J. Griffee. A simple machine for the appli- cation of fungicide to harvested green bananas. PANS, 20: 358 (1974).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. G. Burton. The Potato. Veenman and Zonen, Wageningen (1966).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. G. Coursey. The magnitude and origins of storage losses in Nigerian yams. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 12:574 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. G. Coursey. Los temperature injury in yams. J. Fd. Technol., 3:143 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. G. Coursey. Biodeteriorative losses in tropical horticultural produce. In Biodeterioration of Materials — 2, A.H. Walters and E.H. Hueck-van-derPlas, edits. Academic Press, London (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. G. Coursey. Traditional post harvest technology of tropical perishable staples. U.N.E.P. Industry and Environment Newsl., 4:10 (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. G. Coursey and R. H. Booth. Post harvest losses in perish- able tropical produce. Proc. 6th Br. Insectic. Fungic. Conf., 3:673 (1971).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. G. Coursey and R. H. Booth. The post harvest pathology of perishable tropical produce. Rev. Pl. Pathol., 51:751 (1972).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. G. Coursey and R. H. Booth. Post harvest problems of non- grain staples. Acta Horticulturae, 53:23 (1977).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. G. Coursey and P. H. Haynes. Root crops and their potential as food in the tropics. Wld. Crops, 22:261 (1970)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. G. Coursey and F. J. Proctor. Towards the quantification of post harvest loss in horticultural produce. Acta Horticulturae, 49:55 (1975).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. W. Eckert. Post harvest disease of citrus fruits. OutlookAgric., 9:225 (1978).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. W. Eckert. (This volume.)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. W. Eckert and N. F. Sommer. Control of diseases of fruits and vegetables by post harvest treatment. Ann. Rev. Phyto-pathol., 5:391 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. C. Fidler. Low temperature injury to fruits and vegetables. In Low Temperature Biology of Foods, J. Hawthorne and E. J. Rolfe edits. Pergamon, Oxford (1968).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. C. Fidler and D. G. Coursey. Low temperature injury in tropical fruit. Proc. Conf. Trop. Subtrop. Fruits, London 1969. (1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. H. Fisk edit. The Adaptation of Traditional Agriculture. Australian National University, Development Studies Centre, Monograph No. 11, A.N.U., Canberra (1978).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States. 1978 F.A.O. Production Yearbook, Vol. 32, F.A.O./U.N., Rome (1979).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States. Analysis of an F.A.O. Survey of Post Harvest Crop Losses in Developing Countries. AGPP: Misc/27, F.A.O., Rome (1977).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/United Nations Environmental Programme. Food Loss Prevention in Perishable Crops. Report of the F.A.O./U.N.E.P. Expert Consultation on the Reduction of Food Losses in Perishables of Plant Origin, F.A.O., Rome, 1980 (1981).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. Grierson and F. W. Hayward. Decay control for citrus fruits using 2-aminobutane vapour. Proc. Trop. Reg. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 13:124 (1969).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. W. Hall. Food storage in the developing countries. Trop. Sci., 11:298 (1969).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. W. Hall. Too much waste. Rural Life, 15:16 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. M. Harvey. Reduction of losses in fresh market fruits and vegetables. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 16:321 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. S. Ingram and J.R.O. Humphries. Cassava storage — a review Trop. Sci., 14:131 (1972).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    International Institute of Refrigeration. The carriage of refrigerated cargoes. Annex to Bull. I.I.F., Paris(1973).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. A. Kader, L. L. Morris and M. Cantwell. Post harvest hand- ling and physiology of horticultural crops — a list of selected references. Department of Vegetable Crops, University of California. Vegetable Crops Series, 169, 2nd revision (1979).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Lakshminarayana, A.R. Vijayendra Rao, N.V.N. Moorthy, B. Anandaswamy, V.B. Dalai, P. Narasimham and H. Subramanyam. Studies on the rail shipment of mango. J. Fd. Sci. Tech., 8:123 (1971).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. S. Léonce. The use of gibberellins A4–A7 for the improve-ment of crown rot control in bananas. Proc. Acorbat Conf., Martinique (1974).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. M. Lutz and R. E. Hardenburg. The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables and florist and nursery stocks. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook No. 66, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.(1968).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. M. Lyons. Chilling injury in plants. Ann. Rev. PlantPhysiol., 24:445 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Madalgatti Rao. Problems and prospects of post harvest handling of grapes in India. Punjab Horticultural J., 9:1 (1969).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Marriott. Bananas — physiology and biochemistry of storage and ripening for optimum quality. Crit. Rev. Fd. Sci. Nutr., 13:41 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Marriott and F.J. Proctor. Transportation and conservation of tropical fruits. Outlook Agric., 9:233 (1978).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    National Academy of Sciences. Post harvest food losses indeveloping countries. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. (1978).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    B. Nestel and R. Maclntyre edits. Chronic cassava toxicity, I.D.R.C. -010e, Int. Develop. Res. Centre, Ottawa (1973).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. H. New, F. J. Proctor and V. J. Hewitt. Packaging of horticultural produce for export. Trop. Sci., 20: 21 (1978).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. New, J. Baldry, J. Marriott and E. A. Dixon. Fruit quality factors affecting selection of banana clones. Acta Horticulturae, 57: 205 (1976).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. A. Noon and R. H. Booth. Nature of post harvest deterioration of cassava roots. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc, 69: 287(1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Catalogue of types and sizes of wooden packaging for fruits and vegetables used in Europe. Report of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development No. 372. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris (1958)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    E. B. Pantastico. Post Harvest Physiology, Handling and Util-isation of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits and Vegetables. AVI Publishing Co. Inc., Westport, Connecticut (1975)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    H.A.B. Parpia. Post harvest losses — impact of their prevention on food supplies, nutrition and development. Proc. Symp. Nutr. Agric. Develop. Tropics, Guatamala, 1974, N.S. Scrimshaw and M. Behar edits. Plenum Press, New York (.1976).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    H.C. Passam. Dormancy in yams in relation to storage. In I.F.S. Provisional Report No. 3, Yams, Buea, Cameroun, 1978. International Foundation for Science, Stockholm (1978)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H.C. Passam and G. Blunden (in press). Experiments on the storage of limes at tropical ambient temperatures. Trop. Agri., Trin. Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    H. C. Passam, S. J. Read and J. E. Rickard. Wound repair in yam tubers: the dependence of storage procedures on the nature of the wound and its repair. Trop. Sci., 18:1 (1976)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. C. Passam, S. J. Read and J. E. Rickard. The respiration of yam tubers and its contribution to storage losses. Trop. Agrie, Trin., 55:207 (1978).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. T. Pentzer. Historical perspective of food losses. ProcNatl. Food Loss Conf., Boise, Idaho (1976).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Potato Marketing Board. Unpublished report (n.d.).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    F. J. Proctor. Exporting horticultural produce from the tropics. Wld. Crops, 28:198 (1976)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    F. J. Proctor, J. P. Goodliffe and D. G. Coursey. Post harvest losses of vegetables and their control in the tropics. In Vegetable Productivity, C.R.W. Spelding edit. Macmillan, London (1981).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. Rawnsley. Crop Storage: Technical Report No. 2. Food Research and Development Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Accra, Ghana. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome (1969).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. E. Rickard and D. G. Coursey. The value of shading perish- able produce after harvest. Approp. Technol., 6: 18 (1979).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. E. Rickard, O. J. Burden and D. G. Coursey. Studies on the insolation of tropical horticultural produce. Acta. Horticulturae, 84:115 (1978).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. E. Rickard, J. Marriott and P. B. Gahan. Occlusions in cassava xylem vessels associated with vascular discolouration. Ann. Bot., 43:523 (1979)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    G. K. Saxena, L. H. Halsey, D. D. Gull and N. Persuad. Evalua- tion of carrot and onion cultivars for commercial production in Guyana. Scientia Horticulturae, 2:257 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    K. J. Scott, W. B. McGlasson and E. A. Roberts. Potassium permanganate as an ethylene absorbent in polythene bags to delay ripening of bananas during storage. Aust. J. Expt. Agric. Anim. Husb., 10:237 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    L. G. Smith. Alpha-naphthalene acetic acid and the shelf-life of pineapples. Paper presented at the XXth International Horticultural Congress, Sydney, Australia (1978).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. K. Thompson. Transport, handling and storage of fruit and vegetables in the West Indies. Proc Seminar/Workshop on Hort. Dev. in the Caribbean, Maturin, Venezuela, 11:170 (1972)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. K. Thompson, B. O. Been and C. Perkins. Nematodes in stored yams. Expl. Agric., 9:281 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. K. Thompson, R. H. Booth and F. J. Proctor. Onion storage in the tropics. Trop. Sci., 14:19 (1972)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    E. C. Tigchelaar, W.B. McGlasson and R.W. Buescher. Genetic regulation of tomato fruit ripening. Horticultural Sci., 13: 508 (1978).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. D. Tindall and F. J. Proctor. Loss prevention in horticultural crops in the tropics. Prog. Fd. Nutr. Sci., 4:25 (1980).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    R. G. Tomkins. The microbiological problems in the preserva- tion of fresh fruit and vegetables. J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 2: 381 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. Wood as a Packaging Material in the Developing Countries. ID/72. United Nations, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    A. J. Vlitos (this volume).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    C. A. de Vries, J.D. Ferweda and M. Flach. Choice of food crops in relation to actual and potential production in the tropics. Neth. J. Agric. Sci., 15:241 (1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. G. Coursey
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Products InstituteLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations