Advertisement

Hormonal and Chemical Preharvest Treatments which Influence Postharvest Quality, Maturity and Storeability of Fruit

  • F. Bangerth
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 46)

Abstract

The work of a postharvest physiologist is usually concerned with the quality and durability of a product at harvest and in storage. However, this quality, or potential for quality, is often affected or determined long before that time, and storage may in many respects be regarded as the preservation of predetermined quality. In addition, the way a fruit has to be stored greatly depends on its preharvest life, e.g. the extent of its accumulation of calcium, sugars, acids, on cell size and cell number etc. Growth regulators and phytohormones affect most of these processes and the postharvest physiologist should be aware of the potential as well as the problems related to their use.

Keywords

Growth Regulator Ethylene Production Apple Fruit Apple Cultivar Stone Fruit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Gawad, H. and Romani, R. J., 1974, Hormone induced reversal of color change and related respiratory effects in ripening apricot fruits, Physiol. Plant., 32: 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeles, F. B., 1973, Ethylene in plant biology, Academic Press, New York, 302 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, D. O., and Yang, S. F., 1979, Ethylene biosynthesis: identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76: 170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amrhein, N., and Wenker, D., 1979, Novel inhibitors of the ethylene production in higher plants, Plant and Cell Physiol., 20: 1635.Google Scholar
  5. Ashby, J. P. R., 1972, Ethephon stimulation of tomato ripening, Hort. Res., 12: 145.Google Scholar
  6. Bangerth, F., 1976, A role for auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on the Ca content of artificially induced parthenocarpic fruits, Physiol. Plant, 37: 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bangerth, F., 1979, Calcium related physiological disorders of plants, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 17: 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bangerth, F., 1978, The effect of a substituted amino acid on ethylene biosynthesis, respiration, ripening and preharvest drop of apple fruits, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 103: 401.Google Scholar
  9. Bangerth, F., and Firuzeh, P., 1971, Der Einfluß von 2, 3, 5-Tri-jodbenzoesäure (TIBA) auf den Mineralstoffgehalt und die Stippigkeit von ‘Boskoop’ Früchten, Z. Pflanzenkr., 78:93.Google Scholar
  10. Bangerth, F., und Götz, G., 1975, Zur Wirkung von Gibberellinsäure- und Kinetinapplikationen auf Qualität und Ertrag verschiedener Sorten von Vitis vinifera L., Weinwissenschaft, 30: 121.Google Scholar
  11. Bangerth, F., und Link H. 1972, Möglichkeiten der Entstehung und Bekämpfung von Stippigkeit und Lentizellenflecken, Der Erwerbsobstbau, 14: 113 and 138.Google Scholar
  12. Bangerth, F., and Sjut, V., 1978, Induced parthenocarpy- a tool for investigating hormone regulated physiological processes in fruits, Acta Horticulturae 80: 169.Google Scholar
  13. Bardon, J. A., 1968, Effects of alar on the growth and distribution of the growth increment in one year old apple trees. Proc.Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93: 33.Google Scholar
  14. Biale, J. B., 1968, Respiration of fruits, in: “Handbuch fur Pflanzenphysiology,” Vol. 12/2: 536. W. Ruhland, ed., Springer-Verlag Berlin.Google Scholar
  15. Blanpied, G. D., and Blak, V. A., 1976, Relationship between ethylene level and varietal flavor in ‘Delicious’ apples, Hort Science, 11: 596.Google Scholar
  16. Bramlage, W. J., Drake, M., and Baker, J. H., 1974, Relationships of calcium content to respiration and postharvest condition of apples, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 99: 376.Google Scholar
  17. Buchloh, G., and Kayali, A. Z., 1972, Die Wirkung von Gibberellin- säure und Kinetin auf die Entwicklung parthenokarper Birnenfrüchte, Erwerbsobstbau, 14: 22.Google Scholar
  18. Burg, S. P., and Burg, E. A. 1965, Ethylene action and the ripening of fruits, Science 148: 1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byers, R. E., Emerson, F. H., and Dostal, H. C., 1972, The effect of succinic acid-2, 2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) and other growth regulating chemicals on peach fruit maturation, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 97: 420.Google Scholar
  20. Chalmers, D. J., and Faragher, J. D., 1977, Regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in apple skin. II. Involvement of ethylene, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 4: 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaplin, G. R., and Scott, K. J., 1980, Association of calcium in chilling injury susceptibility of stored avocados, Hort Sci., 15: 514.Google Scholar
  22. Child, R.D., 1973, The interaction of SADH, CEPHA and 2, 4, 5-TP in improving the quality of early-harvested apples, Acta Horticulturae, 34: 441.Google Scholar
  23. Coggins, Ch. W., 1973, Use of growth regulators to delay maturity and prolong shelf life of citrus, Acta Horticulturae, 34: 469.Google Scholar
  24. Coggins, C. W., Hield, H. Z., and Boswell, S. B., 1960, The influence of potassium gibberellate on Lisbon lemon trees and fruit, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 76: 199.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, W. C., and Henry, W. H., 1973, Chemical control of fruit abscission, in: “Shedding of plant parts,” T.T. Kozlowski, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Dennis, F. G., 1973, Physiological control of fruit set and development with growth regulators, Acta Horticulturae 34: 251.Google Scholar
  27. Dostal, H. C., and Leopold, A. C., 1967, Gibberellin delays ripening of tomatoes, Science 158: 1579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drake, S. R., Proebsting, E. L., Thompson, J. B., and Nelson, J. W., 1980, Effects of Daminozide, maturity, and cultivar on the color grade and character of sweet cherries, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 105: 668.Google Scholar
  29. Eccher, T., and Boffelli, G., 1981, Effects of dose and time of application of GA4+7 on russeting, fruit set and shape of ‘Golden Delicious,’ Scientia Hortic. 14: 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Faust, M., 1973, Effect of growth regulators on firmness and red color of fruit, Acta Horticulturae 34: 407.Google Scholar
  31. Firuzeh, P., 1971, Die Auswirkungen von Alar-Spritzungen auf das vegetative und generative Verhalten zweier Sauerkirschensorten, Erwerbsobstbau, 10: 168.Google Scholar
  32. Gil, G. F., Griggs, W. H., and Martin, G. C., 1972, Gibberellin -induced parthenocarpy in ‘Winter Nelis’ pear, Hort Science, 7: 559.Google Scholar
  33. Goldschmidt, E. E., Aharoni, Y., Eilati, S. K., Riov, J. W., and Monselise, S. P., 1977, Differential counteraction of ethylene effects by gibberellin A3 and N6-benzyladenine in senescing citrus peel, Plant Physiol. 59: 193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldschmidt, E. E., and Galili, D., 1974. The fate of endogenous gibberellins and applied radioactive gibberellin A3 during natural and ethylene — induced senescence in citrus peel, Plant and Cell Physiol., 15: 485.Google Scholar
  35. Jackson, J. E., Quinlan, J. D., and Preston, A. P. 1978, Chemical pruning and pruning aids, Acta Horticulturae, 65: 199.Google Scholar
  36. Jackson, D. J. and Coombe, B. G., 1966, Gibberellin like substances in the developing apricot fruit, Science, 1954: 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kitagawa, H., Suguiura, A., and Sngiyama, M., 1966. Effects of gibberellin spray on storage quality of ‘Kaki,’ Hort Science 7: 59.Google Scholar
  38. Knee, M., 1976, Influence of ethylene on the ripening of stored apples, J. Sci. Food Agric, 27: 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kotob, M. A., and Schwabe, W. W., 1975. Respiration rate and acidity in parthenocarpic and seeded ‘Conference’ pears, J. hort. Sci., 50: 435.Google Scholar
  40. Krezdorn, A. H., 1973. Effect of growth regulators on set and development of citrus fruit, Acta Horticulturae, 34: 283.Google Scholar
  41. Lieberman, M., 1979. Biosynthesis and action of ethylene, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 30: 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lieberman, M., Kunishi, A. T., and Owens, L. D., 1974. Specific inhibitors of ethylene production as retardants of the ripening process in fruits, Coll. Inter. C.N.R.S. Paris, No. 238: 161.Google Scholar
  43. Link, H., 1967. Der Einfluß der Ausdünnung auf Fruchtqualität und Erntemenge bei der Apfelsorte ‘Golden Delicious,’ Gartenbauwiss., 32:423.Google Scholar
  44. Link, H., 1973, Effect of fruit thinning on some components of fruit quality in apples, Acta Horticulturae, 34: 445.Google Scholar
  45. Looney, N. E., 1969, Control of apple ripening by succinic acid 2, 2 dimethyl hydrazide, 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride, and ethylene, Plant Physiol., 44: 1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Looney, N. E., 1979. Some effects of gibberellins A4+7 plus benzy-ladenine on fruit weight, shape, quality, Ca content, and storage behavior of ‘Spartan’ apple, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 104: 389.Google Scholar
  47. Looney, N. E., McGlasson, W. B., and Coombe, B., 1974. Control of fruit ripening in peach, Prunus persica: action of succinic acid -2, 2 dimethylhydrazide and (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid, Austral. J. Plant Physiol., 1: 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lüdders, P., 1973, Möglichkeiten der Ertragssteigerung durch Einsatz von triebwachstumshemmenden Mitteln, Mitt. Klosterneuburg, 23: 45.Google Scholar
  49. Ladders, P., und Fischer-Bülukbasi, T., 1980. Einfluß von Alar und TIBA auf den Säure- und Kohlenhydratgehalt von Äpfeln bei unterschiedlichem Fruchtbehang, Gartenbauwiss., 45: 102.Google Scholar
  50. Lürssen, K., (1981), Manipulation of crop growth by ethylene and some implications of the mode of generation. 33rd Easter School in Agricultural Science. Chemical Manipulation of Crop Growth and Development. Butterworth, London (in press).Google Scholar
  51. Lürssen, K., Naumann, K. and Schroder R., 1979, 1-Aminocyclopropane - 1-carboxylic acid — an intermediate of the ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants, Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 92: 285.Google Scholar
  52. Luckwill, L. C., and Child, R. D. 1972, Growth regulator effects on quality and pre-harvest drop of ‘Worcester Pearmain’ apples, J. Hort. Sci., 47: 249.Google Scholar
  53. Martin, G. C., William M. W., and Batjer, L. P., 1964, Movement and fate of labeled N-dimethyl amino succinamic acid (B-Nine) a size — controlling compound, in apple seedlings, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 84:7.Google Scholar
  54. McGlasson, W. B., Wad, N. L., and Adato, J. 1978, Phytohormones and fruit ripening, in: “Phytohormones and related compounds - A comprehensive treatise,” Vol. 2, D.S. Letham, P. B. Goodwin, and T.J.V. Higgins eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  55. Modlibowska, J., 1966, Inducing precocious cropping on young ‘Dr. Jules Guyot’ pear trees with gibberellic acid, J. Hort. Sci. 41:137.Google Scholar
  56. Monselise, S. P., 1979, The use of growth regulators in citriculture, a review, Scientia Hortic., 11: 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Norman, J.C., 1978, Response of developing ethephon-induced fruits of ‘Sugarloaf’ pineapple to some growth regulators, Gartenbauwiss. 43: 62.Google Scholar
  58. Patrick, J. W., 1976, Hormone-directed transport of metabolites, in: “Transport and transfer processes in plants, J. F. Wardlaw, and J- G. Passioura, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Pecheur, J., et Ribaillier, D., 1975, La regulation de la maturation des fruits par l’ethephon, Coll. Inter. C.N.R.S. Paris No. 238:121.Google Scholar
  60. Peynaud, E., and Ribereau-Gayon, P., 1971. The grape, in; “The biochemistry of fruits and their product,” Vol. 2, A.C. Hulme, ed., Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  61. Proebsting, E. L., and Mills, H. H., 1966, Effect of gibberellic acid and growth regulators on quality of ‘Early Italien’ prunes (Prunus domestica L.), Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 89: 135.Google Scholar
  62. Purvis, A. C., 1980, Sequence of chloroplast degreening in ‘Calamondin’ fruit as influenced by ethylene and AgNO3, Plant Physiol., 66: 624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rhodes, M.J.C., Harkett, P. J., Wooltorton, L.S.C. and Hulme, A.C., 1969, Studies on the effect of N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid on the ripening of apple fruits J. Fd. Technol., 4:377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rylski, J., 1979, Effects of temperatures and growth regulators on fruit malformation in tomato, Scientia Hortic. 10, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sacher, J. A., 1973, Senescence and postharvest physiology, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24: 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sachs, R. M., and Weaver, R. J., 1968, Gibberellin and auxin — induced berry enlargement in vitis vinifera L., J. Hort. Sci. 43: 185.Google Scholar
  67. Schwabe, W.W., 1978, Growth regulators and the control of development in fruit trees, in: Proc. British Plant Growth Reg. Group, Monograph No. 21: 143.Google Scholar
  68. Sharpies, R. O., 1973, Orchard sprays, in: “The biology of apple and pear storage,” J. C. Fidler, B. G. Wilkinson, K. L. Edney and R. O. Sharpies, ed., Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, Slough.Google Scholar
  69. Sharpies, R. O., and Johnson, D. S., 1977, The influence of calcium on senescence changes in apple, Ann. Appl. Biol., 85: 450.Google Scholar
  70. Shear, C. B., 1975, Calcium related disorders of fruits and vegetables, Hort Science, 10: 361.Google Scholar
  71. Stahly, E. A., and Benson, N. R., 1976, Calcium levels of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples as influenced by calcium sprays, 2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid, and other plant growth regulator sprays, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 101: 120.Google Scholar
  72. Stembridge, G. E. 1973. Effect of growth regulators on the size and shape of fruits, Acta Horticulturae 34:435Google Scholar
  73. Stösser, R., 1978. Untersuchungen über die Entstehung der Lakunen bei der Gummibildung des Steinobstes, Mitt. Kosterneuburg, 28; 119.Google Scholar
  74. Streif, J., 1976, Einfluß der Temperatur auf verschiedene Reifemerkmale von Apfeln, Erwerbsobstbau, 18: 168.Google Scholar
  75. Streif, J., and Bangerth, F., 1976, The effect of different partial pressures of oxygen and ethylene on the ripening of tomato fruits, Scientia Horticulturae 5: 227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Taylor, B. K., 1975, Reduction of apple skin russeting by gibberellin A4/7, J. Hort. Sci. 50: 169.Google Scholar
  77. Unrath, C. R., 1974, The commercial implications of gibberellin A4/7 plus benzyladenine for improving shape and yield of ‘Delicious’ apples, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 99: 381.Google Scholar
  78. Wang, C. Y., Mellenthin, W. M., and Hansen, E., 1971, Effect of temperature on development of premature ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 96: 122.Google Scholar
  79. Wareing, P. F., 1978, Hormonal regulation of assimilate movement in: Proc. British Plant Growth Reg. Group, Monograph No. 21: 105.Google Scholar
  80. Webster, A.D., and Goldwin, G. K. 1981, The hormonal requirements for improved fruit setting of plum, Prunus domestica L. cv. Victoria, J. Hort. Sci., 56: 27.Google Scholar
  81. Wertheim, S. J., 1971, The drop of flowers and fruits in apple, with special reference to the June drop of ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ and its control with growth regulators, Med. Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 71–17: 1.Google Scholar
  82. Williams, M. W., and Stahly, E. A. 1970, N-Malonyl-D-tryptophan in apple fruits treated with succinic acid 2, 2-dimethylhydrazide, Plant Physiol., 46: 123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zucconi, F., and Bukovac, M. J., 1978, Stimulation of growth of frost-injured peach fruit by gibberellin A3, Acta Horticulturae 80–159.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Bangerth
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Obst-, Gemüse- and WeinbauUniversität HohenheimStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations