Mycotoxins as a Deteriorating Factor in Stored Crops

  • Palle Krogh
Part of the Nato Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 46)

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolities which by ingestion in man and animals cause intoxication, termed mycotoxicosis. Already in 1968 more than 100 toxin-producing mold species were known (1), mainly belonging to the fungal genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, and this list has since been considerably extended. Information on occurrence of mycotoxins in foodstuff is however limited, and survey data are only available for a few mycotoxins. Similarly the number of recognized mycotoxicoses in domestic animals is limited and amounts to less than ten, and in man even fewer mycotoxicoses are known. Thus four mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins were considered to be causally associated with disease in humans, proven or hypothetically, according to a recent publication by the World Health Organization (2). These mycotoxins have been selected for detailed description in this chapter.

Keywords

Maize Turkey Aspergillus Aflatoxin Sorghum 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. E. Wright, Toxin produced by fungi, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 22:269 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization, “Environmental Health Criteria 11: Mycotoxins” WHO, Geneva (1969).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. W. Hesseltine, Conditions leading to mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds, in “Mycotoxins and other Fungal Related Food Problems,” J. V. Rodricks, ed., American Chemical Society, Washington DC (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. D. Northolt, H.P. van Egmond, and W.E. Paulsch, Ochratoxin A production by some fungal species in relation to water activity and temperature, J. Food Prot. 42:485 (1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. D. Northolt, H.P. van Egmond, and W. E. Paulsch, Differences between Aspergillus flavus strains in growth and aflatoxin B1 production in relation to water activity and temperature, J. Food Prot. 40:778 (1977)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. D. Northolt, C.A.H. Verhulsdonk, P.S.S. Soentoro, and W.E. Paulsch, Effect of water activity and temperature on af latoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus, J. Milk Food Tech. 39:170 (1976).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. G. Atherton, D. Brewer, and A. Taylor, Pithomyces chartarum, A fungal parameter in the aetiology of some diseases of domestic animals, in : Mycotoxins, I.F.H. Purchase, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam (1974).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Stoloff, Occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds, in: Mycotoxins and other Fungal Related Food Problems, J. V. Rodricks, ed., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1976).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Krogh, Mycotoxin tolerances in foodstuff, Pure appl. Chem. 49:1719 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Krogh, Ochratoxins, occurrence, biological effects and causal role in diseases, in: “Natural Toxins,” D. Baker and T. Wadström, ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Krogh, Epidemiology of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, Nord. Vet.-Med.28:452 (1976).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Rutqvist, N.-E., Björklund, K. Hult, and S. Gatenbeck, Spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin residues in kidneys of fattening pigs, Zbl. Vet. Med. A. 24:402 (1977).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Piskac, R. Halouzka, J. Drabek, J. Mala, and C. Smrcek, Mykotoxicka nefropatie prasat ve velkochovech, Veterinarstvi 29:253 (1979).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Krogh, N.H. Axelsen, F. Elling, N. Gyrd-Hansen, B. Hald, J. Hyldgaard-Jensen, A.E. Larsen, A. Madsen, H.P. Mortensen, T. Miller, O.K. Petersen, U. Ravnskov, M. Rostgaard, and O. Aalund: Experimental porcine nephropathy. Changes of renal function and structure induced by ochratoxin A-contaminated feed. Acta path. microbiol. scan., Section A Supplernenturn No. 246, 21 pp., (1974).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Danish Pig Meat Sector, “Statistics 1979,” Copenhagen (1980).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Food and Agriculture Organization, “Production Yearbook,” Rome (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Palle Krogh
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary MicrobiologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyRoyal Dental CollegeCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations