The Dentition of the Pygmy Chimpanzee, Pan paniscus

  • Warren G. Kinzey
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)


Prior to 1974 the only studies on the dentition of Pan paniscus involved very small samples. Remane (1960) presented measurements of teeth of 4–11 adult individuals and later (1962) measurements of deciduous teeth of two maxillas and 3–4 mandibles. Conroy (1972) published indices based on measurements of maxillary teeth in three specimens of Pan paniscus to show that relative reduction of incisors and canine of Ramapithecus (FT 1271–2) was greater than that in either species of chimpanzee. Vandebroek (1969) used Pan paniscus extensively to compare with other primates in his book on vertebrate evolution. He included several photos of teeth of P. paniscus: one a lingual view of a deciduous dentition (Vandebroek, 1969, p. 289), and lateral views of male and female permanent dentitions (pp. 388–389). He also presented a graph of average measurements of the three lower molars compared with those of other hominoids (p. 394), and a drawing of lingual views of the lower teeth showing morphological variation (p. 415). Almquist (1974) measured incisors and canines in 18 female and 14 male P. paniscus from Tervuren, and compared these measurements with other African pongids and cercopithecids. He found significant sexual dimorphism in the length, breadth, and height of both upper and lower permanent canines of P. paniscus.


Deciduous Tooth Permanent Tooth Permanent Dentition Crown Area Maxillary Tooth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Almquist, A. J., 1974, Sexual differences in the anterior dentition in African primates, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 40:359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashton, E. H. and Zuckerman, S., 1950, Some quantitative dental characteristics of the chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-outang, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 234B:471–479.Google Scholar
  3. Clements, E. M. B., and Zuckerman, S., 1953, The order of eruption of the permanent teeth in the Hominoidea, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 11:313–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Conroy, G. C., 1972, Problems in the interpretation of Ramapithecus: with special reference to anterior tooth reduction, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cramer, D. L., 1977, Craniofacial morphology of Pan paniscus, Contrib. Primatol. 10:1–64.Google Scholar
  6. Fenart, R., and Deblock, R., 1973, Pan paniscus et Pan troglodytes craniométrie. Étude comparative et ontogénique selon les méthodes classiques et vestibulaires, Mus. R. Afr. Centr. Tervuren Belg. Ann. Ser. Octavo Sci. Zool. 204:1–473.Google Scholar
  7. Frisch, J. E., 1965, Trends in the evolution of the hominoid dentition, Bibl. Primatol. 3:1–130.Google Scholar
  8. Gould, J. S., 1975, Allometry in primates, with emphasis on scaling and the evolution of the brain, in: Approaches to Primate Paleobiology (F. S. Szalay, ed), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 244–292.Google Scholar
  9. Johanson, D. C., 1974a, Some metric aspects of the permanent and deciduous dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 41:39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johanson, D. C., 1974b, An Ondontological Study of the Chimpanzee with Some Implications for Hominoid Evolution, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  11. Kay, R. F., 1973, Mastication, Molar Tooth Structure and Diet in Primates, Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  12. Korenhof, C. A. W., 1960, Morphogenetical Aspects of the Human Upper Molar, Uitgeversmaatschappy, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  13. Krogman, W. M., 1930, Studies in growth changes in the skull and face of anthropoids. I. The eruption of the teeth in anthropoids and Old World apes, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 46:303–313.Google Scholar
  14. Krogman, W. M., 1969, Growth changes in skull, face, jaws, and teeth of the chimpanzee, in: The Chimpanzee, Volume 1 (G. H. Bourne, ed.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 104–164.Google Scholar
  15. Lavelle, C. L. B., Flinn, R. M., Foster, T. D., and Hamilton, M. C., 1970, An analysis into age changes of the human dental arch by a multivariate technique, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 33:403–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mahler, P., 1973, Metric Variation in the Pongid Dentition, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  17. Monteil, G. A., 1970, Étude du déplacement ontogénique des dents du Pan paniscus dans les axes vestibulaires d’orientation, Thesis, Doctor of Dental Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Paris.Google Scholar
  18. Nissen, H. W., and Riesen, A. H., 1945, The deciduous dentition of chimpanzee, Growth 9:265–274.Google Scholar
  19. Remane, A., 1960, Zähne und Gebiss, in: Primatologia, Volume III (H. Hofer, A. H. Schultz, and D. Starck, eds.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 637–846.Google Scholar
  20. Remane, A., 1962, Masse und Proportionen des Milchgebisses der Hominoidea, Bibl. Primatol. 1:229–238.Google Scholar
  21. Schultz, A. H., 1935, Eruption and decay of the permanent teeth in primates, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 19:489–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schultz, A. H., 1956, Postembryonic age changes, in: Primatologia, Volume I (H. Hofer, A. H. Schultz, and D. Starck, eds.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 887–964.Google Scholar
  23. Schuman, E. L., and Brace, C. L., 1954, Metric and morphologic variations in the dentition of the Liberian chimpanzee; comparisons with anthropoid and human dentitions, Hum. Biol. 26:239–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Thomas, D. H., 1976, Figuring Anthropology, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Vandebroek, G., 1959, Notes ecologiques sur les anthropoides africains, Ann. Soc. R. Zool. Belg. 89:203–211.Google Scholar
  26. Vandebroek, G., 1969, Evolution des Vertebres de leur origine à l’homme, Masson, Paris.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren G. Kinzey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, City College of New YorkCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations