A Measure of Basicranial Flexion in Pan paniscus, the Pygmy Chimpanzee

  • Jeffrey T. Laitman
  • Raymond C. Heimbuch
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)


The cranial base is located at one of the most sensitive areas of the body. Developmentally, it can affect or be affected by the brain and its associated vasculature from above; the vertebral column caudally; the dentognathic apparatus anteriorly; and the upper respiratory tract from below. The contributing influences of these differing regions have made the cranial base a prime site of investigation for those examining the evolution or development of cranial morphology. In particular, the various angles of exocranial and endocranial flexion of the base have been used frequently both as a means of monitoring functional development in primates as well as a vehicle for assessing patterns in primate and hominid evolution [see reviews by Schulter (1976) and Sirianni and Swindler (1979)].


Cranial Base Craniofacial Morphology Pygmy Chimpanzee Deciduous Dentition Equal Covariance 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey T. Laitman
    • 1
  • Raymond C. Heimbuch
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyMount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical BiostatisticsOrtho Pharmaceutical CompanyRaritanUSA

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