Advertisement

Blood Groups of Pygmy and Common Chimpanzees

A Comparative Study
  • Wladyslaw W. Socha
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)

Abstract

The discovery of the blood groups of man (Landsteiner, 1901) and, particularly, confirmation of their hereditary nature (Bernstein, 1925) added a new dimension to taxonomic studies. The importance of blood groups for systematics was demonstrated quite early by Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld (1919), who carried out analyses of blood group frequencies among human races. The first comparative study of hominoid (ape and human) red cell antigens was undertaken by Landsteiner and Miller (1925). Thirty-five years later the first attempts were made to compare blood groups among various chimpanzee species, including the pygmy chimpanzee (André et al., 1961). Although at present impressive numbers of specificities have been identified on the red cells of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and hundreds of animals of this species have been tested for their blood groups, the testing of blood groups in pygmy chimpanzees has been infrequent, due to the relatively few specimens in captivity. Testing done thus far on the blood groups of Pan paniscus has revealed interesting differences between pygmy and common chimpanzees and shed light on discussions of the phylogenetic position of Pan paniscus. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the results of our ongoing research on blood group serology of the pygmy and common chimpanzees.

Keywords

Blood Group Blood Group System Pygmy Chimpanzee Human Blood Group Common Chimpanzee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. André, A., Courtois, G., Lennes, G., Ninane, G., and Osterrieth, P. M., 1961, Mise en evidence d’antigènes de groupes sanguins, A, B, O et Rh chez les singes chimpanzés, Ann. Inst. Pasteur 101:82–95.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, G., 1925, Zusammenfassende Betrachtungen über die erblichen Blutstrukturen des Menschen, Z. Indukt. Abstammlings. Vererbungsl. 37:233.Google Scholar
  3. Erskine, A. G., and Socha, W. W., 1978, The Principles and Practice of Blood Grouping, 2nd ed., C. V. Mosby, Saint Louis.Google Scholar
  4. Hirszfeld, L., and Hirszfeld, H., 1919, Serological differences between the blood of different races, Lancet ii:675–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Landsteiner, K., 1901, Ueber Agglutinationserscheinungen normalen menschlichen Blutes, Klin. Wochenschr. 14:1132.Google Scholar
  6. Landsteiner, K., and Levine, P., 1927, A new agglutinale factor differentiating individual human blood, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 24:600.Google Scholar
  7. Landsteiner, K., and Miller, C. P., 1925, Serological studies on the blood of the primates. I. The differentiation of human and anthropoid bloods J. Exp. Med. 42:841–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Landsteiner, K., and Wiener, A. S., 1937, On the presence of M agglutinins in the blood of monkeys, J. Immunol. 33:19–25.Google Scholar
  9. Landsteiner, K., and Wiener, A. S., 1940, An agglutinable factor in human blood recognizable by immune sera for rhesus blood, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. (NY) 43:223.Google Scholar
  10. Moon, G. J., and Wiener, A. S., 1974, A new source of anti-N lectin: Leaves of the Korean Vicia unijuga, Vox Sang 26:167–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moor-Jankowski, J., and Wiener, A. S., 1967, Sero-primatology, a new discipline, in: Progress in Primatology, Fischer, Stuttgart, pp. 378–381.Google Scholar
  12. Moor-Jankowski, J., and Wiener, A. S., 1972, Red cell antigens of primates, in: Pathology of Simian Primates (R. N. T.-W. Fiennes, ed.), S. Karger, Basel, Part 1, pp. 270–317.Google Scholar
  13. Moor-Jankowski, J., Wiener, A. S., Socha, W. W., Gordon, E. B., and Mortelmans, J., 1972, Blood groups of the dwarf chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), J. Med. Primatol. 1:90–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Moor-Jankowski, J., Wiener, A. S., Socha, W. W., Gordon, E. B., Mortelmans, J., and Sedgwick, C. J., 1975, Blood groups of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), J. Med. Primatol. 4:262–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ottensooser, F., and Silberschmidt, K., 1953, Haemagglutinin anti-N in plant seeds, Nature 172:914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Prokop, O., Rachwitz, A., and Schlesinger, D., 1965, A “new” human blood group receptor Ahel tested with saline extracts from Helix hortensis (garden snail), J. Forensic Med. (S.Afr.) 12:108–111.Google Scholar
  17. Ruffié, J., and Socha, W. W., 1980, Les groupes sanguins érythrocytaires des primates non-hominiens, Nouv. Rev. Fr. Hématol. 22:147–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmitt, J., Immunobiologische Untersuchungen bei Primaten. Ein Beitrag zur Evolution der Blut- und Serumgruppen, 1968, Bibl. Primatol. 8:1–146.Google Scholar
  19. Schmitt, J., Spielman, W., and Weber, M., 1962, Serologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen von Pan paniscus Schwarz 1929 zu anderen Hominoiden, Z. Saugetierkd. 27:45–61.Google Scholar
  20. Socha, W., 1966, Problems of Serological Differentiation of Human Population, Polish State Medical Publishers, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  21. Socha, W. W., 1981, Blood groups as genetic markers in chimpanzees: Their importance for the National Chimpanzee Breeding Program, Am. J. Primatol. 1:3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Socha, W. W., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1978, Rh antibodies produced by an isoimmune chimpanzee: Reciprocal relationship between chimpanzee isoimmune sera and human anti-Rho reagents, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 56:30–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Socha, W. W., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1979, Blood groups of anthropoid apes and their relationship to human blood groups, J. Hum. Evol. 8:453–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Socha, W. W., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1980, Chimpanzee R-C-E-F blood group systems: A counterpart of the human Rh-Hr groups, Folia Primatol. 33:172–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Socha, W. W., and Ruffle, J., 1983, Blood Groups of Primates: Theory, Practice, Evolutionary Meaning, G. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  26. Socha, W. W., and van Foreest, A. W., 1981, Erythroblastosis fetalis in a family of captive orangutans, Am. J. Primatol. 1:326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Socha, W. W., and Wiener, A. S., 1973, Problem of blood factor C of A-B-O system, N.Y. State J. Med. 73:2144–2156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Socha, W. W., Wiener, A. S., Gordon, E. B. and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1972, Methodology of primate blood grouping, Transplant. Proc. 4:107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Unger, L. J., Wiener, A. S., and Katz, L., 1959, Studies on blood factors RhA, RhB, and Rhc, J. Exp. Med. 110:495–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Watkins, M. W., 1966, Blood group substances, Science 162:172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wiener, A. S., 1938, The agglutinogens M and N in anthropoid apes, J. Immunol. 34:11–18.Google Scholar
  32. Wiener, A. S., and Gordon, E. B., 1961, The blood groups of chimpanzees: The Rh-Hr (CDE/cde) blood types, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 19:35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wiener, A. S., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1971, Blood groups of chimpanzees, in: Chimpanzee: Immunological Specificities of Blood (C. Kratochvil, ed.), Primates in Medicine, Volume 6, Karger, Basel, pp. 115–144.Google Scholar
  34. Wiener, A. S., and Socha, W. W., 1976, Methods available for solving medicolegal problems of disputed parentage, J. Forensic Sci. 21:42–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wiener, A. S., and Ward, F. A., 1966, The serological specificity (blood factor) C of the A-B-O blood groups. Theoretical implications and practical applications, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 46:27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Gordon, E. B., 1963, Blood groups of apes and monkeys. II. The A-B-0 blood groups, secretor and Lewis types of apes, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21:271–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Gordon, E. B., 1964a, Blood groups of apes and monkeys. IV. The Rh-Hr blood types of anthropoid apes, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 16:246–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Gordon, E. B., 1964b, Blood group antigens and crossreacting antibodies in primates including man. I. Production of antisera for agglutinogen M by immunization with blood other than human type M blood, J. Immunol. 92:391–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., Riopelle, A. J., and Shell, N. F., 1965, Simian blood groups. Another blood group system, C-E-F, in chimpanzees, Transfusion 5:508–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., Gordon, E. B., and Kratochvil, C. H., 1966, Individual differences in chimpanzee blood, demonstrated with absorbed human anti-Rh0 sera, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56:458–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wiener, A. S., Brian, P., and Gordon, E. B., 1969a, Further observations on the hemagglutinins of the snail Achatina granulata, Haematologia (Budapest) 3:9–16.Google Scholar
  42. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Brancato, G. J., 1969b, LW Factor, Haematologia (Budapest) 3:389–393.Google Scholar
  43. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Gordon, E. B., 1969c, The specificity of hemag-glutinating bean and seed extracts (lectins). Implication for the nature of A-B-O agglutinins, Intl. Arch Allergy Appl. Immunol. 36:582–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wiener, A. S., Socha, W. W., and Gordon, E. B., 1971, Fractionation of human anti-Rh0 sera by absorption with red cells of apes, Haematologia (Budapest) 5:227–240.Google Scholar
  45. Wiener, A. S., Gordon, E. B., Socha, W. W., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1972, Population genetics of chimpanzee blood groups, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:301–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wiener, A. S., Moor-Jankowski, J., Socha, W. W., and Gordon, E. B., 1974a, The chimpanzee V-A-B blood group system, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 26:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wiener, A. S., Socha, W. W., and Moor-Jankowski, J., 1974b, Homologues of the human A-B-O blood groups in apes and monkeys, Haematologia (Budapest) 8:195–216.Google Scholar
  48. Wiener, A. S., Socha, W. W., Moor-Jankowski, J., and Gordon, E. B., 1975, Family studies on the simian-type blood groups of chimpanzees, J. Med. Primatol. 4:45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wladyslaw W. Socha
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Blood Group Reference Laboratory and WHO Collaborating Centre for Haematology of Primate Animals, Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates (LEMSIP)New York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations