Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes

Contrasts in Preverbal Communicative Competence
  • E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)


Previous ape language studies have been undertaken with common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) (Gardner and Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977, Savage-Rumbaugh, 1979; Miles, 1982; Patterson and Linden, 1981). Additionally, a brief attempt was made with a pygmy chimpanzee housed in the Stuttgart Zoo by Jordan and Jordan (1977), who employed a Premackian problem-solving paradigm. However, no one has previously attempted to place pygmy chimpanzees in a full-time communicative environment that entails close and constant interaction with human beings for the purpose of attempting to teach them complex symbolic tasks. In fact, apart from the brief work mentioned above by Jordan and Jordan (1977), no serious attempts have been made to investigate the cognitive capacities of these apes, nor to contrast them with other apes. This paucity of information is not due to lack of interest, but simply to lack of availability of these animals for research purposes. They were not reorganized as a distinct species until 1929 (Schwarz, 1929) and it was not until 1956 (Tratz and Heck, 1954) that the wide range of behavioral differences between common chimpanzees and pygmy chimpanzees began to be recognized.


Human Infant Communicative Intentionality Affiliative Behavior Captive Chimpanzee Pygmy Chimpanzee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bates, E., 1979, The Emergence of Symbols, Cognition and Communication in Infancy, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Bruner, J. S., 1974–1975, From communication to language—A psychological perspective, Cognition 3(3):255–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bullowa, M., 1979, Introduction: Prelinguistic communication. A field for scientific research, in: Before Speech. The Beginning of Interpersonal Communication (M. Bullowa, ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge pp. 1–62.Google Scholar
  4. De Waal, F. B., and Hoekstra, J. A., 1980, Contexts and predictability of aggression in champanzees, Anim. Behav. 28:929–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gardner, R. A., and Gardner, B. T., 1969, Teaching sign-language to chimpanzees, Science 165:664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodall, J., Bandura, A., Bergman, E., Busse, C., Matama, H., Mpongo, E., Pierce, A., and Riss, D., 1979, Inter-community interactions in the chimpanzee population of the Gombe Stream National Park, in: The Great Apes (D. A. Hamburg and E. R. McCown, eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, California, pp. 13–53.Google Scholar
  7. Gray, H., 1978, Learning to take an object from the mother, in Action, Gesture, and Symbol: The Emergence of Language (Andrew Lock, ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 159–182.Google Scholar
  8. Jordan, C., and Jordan, H., 1977, Versuche zur Symbol-Ereignis-Verknupfung bei einer Zwergschimpansen (Pan paniscus, Scwarz, 1929), Primates 18(3):515–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kano, T., 1980, Social behavior of wild pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba: A preliminary report, J. Hum. Evol. 9:243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuroda, S., 1980, Social behavior of the pygmy chimpanzee, Primates 21(2):181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miles, L., 1982, Sign language studies with an orangutan, Paper presented at IXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  12. Patterson, T., 1973, The Behavior of a Group of Captive Pygmy Chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), Masters Thesis, University of Georgia.Google Scholar
  13. Patterson, F., and Linden, E., 1981, The Education of Koko, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Rumbaugh, D. M., 1977, Language Learning by a Chimpanzee: The LANA Project, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Savage, E. S., 1975, Mother-Infant Behavior in Group-Living Captive Chimpanzees, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  16. Savage, E. S., and Bakeman, R., 1978, Sexual morphology and behavior in Pan paniscus, in: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Primatology, Cambridge, England, Academic Press, New York, pp. 613–616.Google Scholar
  17. Savage, E. S., and Malick, E., 1977, Play and socio-sexual behavior in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) group, Behavior 60:179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Savage, E. S., and Wilkerson, B. J., 1978, Socio-sexual behavior in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes: A comparative study, J. Hum. Evol. 1:327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Savage, E. S., Temerlin, J. W., and Lemmon, W. B., 1973, Group formation among captive mother-infant chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Folia Primatol. 20:453–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Savage, E. S., Wilkerson, B. J., and Bakeman, R., 1977, Spontaneous gestural communication among conspecifics in the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), in: Progress in Ape Research (G. H. Bourne, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 97–116.Google Scholar
  21. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., 1979, Symbolic communication—Its origins and early development in the chimpanzee, New Directions Child Devel. 3:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., and Rumbaugh, D. M., 1978, Symbolization, language and chimpanzees: A theoretical re-evaluation based on initial acquisition process in four young Pan troglodytes, Brain Language 6:265–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., and Rumbaugh, D. M., 1980, Language Analogue Project, Phase II: Theory and tactics, in: Children’s Language, Vol. II (K. Nelson, ed.), Gardner Press, New York, pp. 267–307.Google Scholar
  24. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Scanlon, J., and Rumbaugh, D. M., 1980, Communicative intentionally in the chimpanzee, Behav. Brain Sci. 3:620–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schwarz, E., 1929, Das Vorkommer der Schimpansen auf den linken Kongo-Ufer, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. XVI(4):425–426.Google Scholar
  26. Susman, R. L., Badrian, N. L., and Badrian, A. J., 1980, Locomotor behavior of Pan paniscus in Zaire, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53:69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Temerlin, M. K., 1975, Lucy: Growing up human, Science and Behavior Books, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
  28. Tratz, E., and Heck, H., 1954, Der Afrikanische Anthropoide “Bonobo,” eine neue Menschen-auffengattung, Saugetierkd. Mitt. 2:97–101.Google Scholar
  29. Woodruff, G., and Premack, D., 1979, Intentional communication in the chimpanzee: The development of deception, Cognition 7:333–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yerkes, R. M., and Learned, B. W., 1925, Chimpanzee Intelligence and Its Vocal Expressions, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yerkes, R. M., and Yerkes, A. W., 1929, The Great Apes, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  32. Zihlman, A., Cronin, J. E., Cramer, D. L., and Sarich, V. M., 1978, Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, Nature 275:744–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh
    • 1
  1. 1.Language Research Center, Yerkes Regional Primate Research CenterEmory University and Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations