Sexual Behavior of Pan paniscus under Natural Conditions in the Lomako Forest, Equateur, Zaire

  • Nancy Thompson-Handler
  • Richard K. Malenky
  • Noel Badrian
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)

Abstract

Allusions to the flexible sociosexual behavior of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) have been incorporated into the “bonobo model” of human evolution (Zihlman, 1979; Zihlman and Cramer, 1978; Zihlman et al., 1978), although data to substantiate pygmy chimpanzee sexuality is scant due to the limited number of subjects available for study in captivity and the recency of field studies of free-ranging animals. However, all laboratory and field studies to date that have examined aspects of sexual behavior (Jordan in Neugebauer, 1980; Kano, 1980; Kuroda, 1980; Patterson, 1979; Savage and Bakeman, 1978; Savage-Rumbaugh and Wilkerson, 1978; Savage-Rumbaugh et al., 1977; Tratz and Heck, 1954) have noted that the species is characterized by a high frequency of ventroventral copulation, a prolonged period of female sexual responsivity and homosexual behavior, especially between females in the form of genitogenital rubbing. Behavioral data coupled with a number of paedomorphic characters, including small size, gracile build, low degree of sexual dimorphism, reduced dentition and facial prognathism, have led some (Coolidge, 1933; Lowenstein and Zihlman, 1980; Zihlman and Cramer, 1978; Zihlman, 1979; Zihlman et al., 1978) to suggest that this “generalized” species might provide the best model for the last common ancestor of Pan, Gorilla, and Homo.

Keywords

Estrogen Beach Progesterone Triad Congo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badrian, A., and Badrian, N., 1977, Pygmy chimpanzees, Oryx 14:463–472.Google Scholar
  2. Badrian, A., and Badrian, N., 1978, Wild bonobos of Zaire, Wildl. News 13:12–16.Google Scholar
  3. Badrian, A. and Badrian, N., 1980, The other chimpanzee, Animal Kingdom 83:8–14.Google Scholar
  4. Badrian, N., Badrian, A., and Susman, R., 1981, Preliminary observations on the feeding behavior of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest of Central Zaire, Primates 22(2): 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beach, F. A., 1976, Sexual attractivity, proceptivity and receptivity in female mammals, Horm.Behav. 7:105–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chivers, D. J., 1978, Sexual behavior of wild siamang, in: Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1—Behaviour (D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 609–610.Google Scholar
  7. Coolidge, H. J., 1933, Pan paniscus. Pygmy chimpanzee from south of the Congo River, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 18:1–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahl, J. F., 1984, The external genitalia of female pygmy chimpanzees (submitted).Google Scholar
  9. Fossey, D., 1982, Reproduction among free-living mountain gorillas, Am. J. Primatol. Suppl. 1:97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Galdikas, B. M. F., 1981, Orangutan reproduction in the wild, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 281–300.Google Scholar
  11. Goodall, J., 1968, The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve, Anim. Behav. Monogr. 1:161–311.Google Scholar
  12. Goodall, J., 1983, Population dynamics during a 15 year period in one community of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania, Z.Tierpsychol. 61:1–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham, C. E., 1981, Menstrual cycle of the great apes, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–44.Google Scholar
  14. Harcourt, A. H., 1981, Intermale competition and the reproductive behavior of the great apes, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 301–318.Google Scholar
  15. Harcourt, A. H., Stewart, K. J. and Fossey, D., 1981, Gorilla reproduction in the wild, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 265–280.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, R. J., 1969, Reproduction and reproductive organs, in: The Biology of Marine Mammals, (H. T. Andersen, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 145–169.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, S. C., 1981, Bonobos: Generalized hominid prototypes or specialized insular dwarfs? Curr. Anthropol. 22:363–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kano, T., 1979, A pilot study on the ecology of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus, in: The Great Apes (D. Hamburg and E. McCowan, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 123–135.Google Scholar
  19. Kano, T., 1980, Social behavior of wild pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba: A preliminary report, J. Hum. Evol. 9: 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kano, T., 1982, The social group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba, Primates 23(2):171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kano, T., 1984a, Observations of physical abnormalities among the wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) of Wamba, Zaire, Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 63:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kitamura, K., 1983, Pygmy chimpanzee association patterns in ranging, Primates 24:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuroda, S., 1979, Grouping of the pygmy chimpanzees, Primates 20:161–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuroda, S., 1980, Social behavior of the pygmy chimpanzee, Primates 21(2):181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Latimer, B. M., White, T. D., Kimbel, W. H., Johanson, D. C., and Lovejoy, C. O., 1981, The pygmy chimpanzee is not a living missing link in human evolution, J. Hum. Evol. 10:475–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lowenstein, J. M., and Zihlman, A. L., 1980, A watered-down version of human evolution, Oceans 13(3):3–6.Google Scholar
  27. MacKinnon, J. R., 1971, The orangu-tan in Sabah today, Oryx 11:141–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MacKinnon, J. R., 1974, The behavior and ecology of wild orangu-tans (Pongo pygmaeus), Anim. Behav. 22:3–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McGinnis, P. R., 1973, Patterns of Sexual Behavior in a Community of Free Living Chimpanzees, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  30. Morris, D., 1967, The Naked Ape, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Nadler, R. D., 1975, Face to face copulation in nonhuman mammals, Med. Aspects Hum. Sexuality 1975(May): 173–174.Google Scholar
  32. Nadler, R. D., 1977, Sexual behavior of captive orangutans, Arch. Sex. Behav. 6:457–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadler, R. D., 1981, Laboratory research on sexual behavior of the great apes, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 192–238.Google Scholar
  34. Nadler, R. D., Graham, C. E., Collins, D. C., and Kling, C. R., 1981, Postpartum amenorrhea and behavior of apes, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 69–82.Google Scholar
  35. Neugebauer, W., 1980, The status and management of the pygmy chimpanzee, Int. Zoo Yearb., 20:64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patterson, T., 1979, The behavior of a group of captive pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), Primates 20(3):341–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rowell, T. E., 1972, Female reproductive cycles and social behavior in primates, in: Advances in the Study of Behavior (D. S. Lehrman, R. A. Hinde, and E. Shaw, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 69–105.Google Scholar
  38. Savage, S., and Bakeman, R., 1978, Sexual morphology and behavior in Pan paniscus, in: Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 1, Behavior (D. J. Chivers and J. Herbert, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 613–616.Google Scholar
  39. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., and Wilkerson, B. J., 1978, Socio-sexual behavior in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes: A comparative study, J. Hum. Evol. 7:327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Wilkerson, B. J., and Bakeman, R., 1977, Spontaneous gestural communication among conspecifics in the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) in: Progress in Ape Research (G. H. Bourne, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 97–116.Google Scholar
  41. Saayman, G. S., 1975, The influence of hormonal and ecological factors upon sexual behavior and social organization in Old World Primates, in: Socioecology and Psychology of Primates (R. H. Tuttle, ed.), Mouton, The Haque, pp. 181–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Susman, R. L., 1980, Acrobatic pygmy chimpanzees, Natural History 89(9):32–39.Google Scholar
  43. Susman, R. L., Badrian, N., and Badrian, A., 1980, Locomotor behavior of Pan paniscus in Zaire, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53:69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Susman, R., Badrian, N., Badrian, A., and Handler, N. T., 1981, Pygmy chimpanzees in peril, Oryx 16:180–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tratz, E., and Heck, H., 1954, Der Afrikanische anthropoide “bonobo”, eine neue Menscheauaffengattung, Saugetier, Mitteilungen (Stuttgart) 2:97–101.Google Scholar
  46. Tutin, C. E. G., 1975, Sexual Behavior and Mating Patterns in a Community of Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  47. Tutin, C. E. G., 1979a, Responses of chimpanzees to copulation, with special reference to interference by immature individuals, Anim. Behav. 27:845–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tutin, C. E. G., 1979b, Mating patterns and reproductive strategies in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii),Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 6:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tutin, C. E. G., 1980, Reproductive behaviour of wild chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania, J. Reprod. Pert., Suppl. 28:43–57.Google Scholar
  50. Tutin, C. E. G., and McGinnis, P. R., 1981, Chimpanzee reproduction in the wild, in: Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (C. E. Graham, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 239–264.Google Scholar
  51. Tutin, C. E. G., and McGrew, W. C., 1973, Chimpanzee copulatory behavior, Folia primatol. 19:237–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yerkes, R. M., 1939, Sexual behavior in the chimpanzee, Hum. Biol. 11:78–111.Google Scholar
  53. Yerkes, R. M., and Elder, J. H., 1936a, Oestrus, receptivity and mating in chimpanzees, Comp. Psychol. Mongr. 13:1–39.Google Scholar
  54. Yerkes, R. M., and Elder, J. H., 1936b, The sexual and reproductive cycles of chimpanzee, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 22:276–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Young, W. C., and Yerkes, R. M., 1943, Factors influencing the reproductive cycle in the chimpanzee: The period of adolescent sterility and related problems, Endocrinology 33:131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zihlman, A. L., 1979, Pygmy chimpanzee morphology and the interpretation of early hominids, So. Afr. J. Sci. 75:165–168.Google Scholar
  57. Zihlman, A. L., and Cramer, D. L., 1978, Skeletal differences between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Folia Primatol. 29:86–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zihlman, A. L., Cronin, J. E., Cramer, D. L., and Sarich, V. E., 1978, Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, Nature 275:744–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zuckerman, S., 1932, The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Revision of 1932 Edition, Rutledge & Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Thompson-Handler
    • 1
  • Richard K. Malenky
    • 2
  • Noel Badrian
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and EvolutionState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologyState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations