Social Organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire

  • Alison Badrian
  • Noel Badrian
Part of the The Pygmy Chimpanzee book series (EBIO)


Of the four great apes—the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)—the latter three are known to exhibit marked differences in the way their respective societies are organized and structured. Common chimpanzee society consists of a flexible community of strongly bonded adult males and more solitary females (Wrangham, 1975; Tutin and McGinnis, 1981). Within chimpanzee society, the size and composition of groups [“temporary associations,” “bands,” “parties” (Goodall, 1968; Reynolds and Reynolds, 1965)] are unstable. The only enduring bonds within a community are those between mothers and their offspring (Good-all, 1968). The social structure of the gorilla consists of cohesive groups comprising a dominant adult male, a variable number of other males, adult females, and young (Schaller, 1963). Solitary males may be found on the fringes of the group and will associate with its members on occasion (Harcourt, 1979). Orangutans are largely solitary except for mothers with dependent offspring and temporary male-female consortships (MacKinnon, 1971, 1974; Rijksen, 1978).


Wild Chimpanzee Estrous Female Pygmy Chimpanzee Dependent Offspring Solitary Female 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison Badrian
    • 1
  • Noel Badrian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AthropologyState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

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